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Questões de Vestibular - Exercícios com Gabarito

Questões de Vestibular para Concurso Público com Gabarito. Exercícios com Respostas Resolvidas e Comentadas. Responda Online Grátis!

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Outro composto encontrado no óleo de citronela, embora
em menor proporção, é o isopulegol. Trata-se de um álcool cíclico
formado a partir do ataque nucleofílico dos elétrons pi da ligação
dupla do citronelal ao carbono de sua carbonila, reação essa
catalisada por ácidos de Lewis.
Com relação ao isopulegol e a sua formação, julgue os itens 76 e 77
e assinale a opção correta nos itens 78 e 79, que são do tipo C. 
Se a reação de conversão do citronelal em isopulegol obedece a uma cinética de primeira ordem, então uma expressão matemática que relacione a velocidade de formação v do isopulegol em termos da concentração do citronelal — [citronelal] — e da constante de velocidade k da reação pode ser escrita como v = [email protected][citronelal].
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The effect of climate change on epidemic risk
The potential impacts of climate change have returned to headlines in recent weeks as scientists,
activists and policy makers try to understand the possible implications of a warming planet. While
rising temperatures and sea levels are important to be considered, changing climate patterns can
have vast implications for epidemic risk as well.
5 Changes in global climate patterns have been widely discussed; however, rising temperatures
also have implications for risk reduction and management, including impacts on infectious disease
epidemics. With 2016 the hottest year ever recorded and 2017 following suit, we anticipate a
continued growth in the distribution of disease agents, like mosquitoes and ticks. These can
spread illnesses such as zika, yellow fever and dengue to areas where they previously could not be
10 effectively transmitted.
As predicted by climate scientists, increases in extreme weather events may also lead to increases
in infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemics have previously been seen as a consequence of natural
disasters, which can lead to displaced and crowded populations, the ideal situation for infection
transmission. Severe rainfall or flooding is particularly effective at creating environments suitable
15 for the transmission and propagation of infectious diseases, such as measles or cholera.
Even without rising to the level of a natural catastrophe, significant variation in weather patterns
can result in changes in human and animal interactions, increasing the potential for pathogens to
move from animals into human populations. For example, unusually heavy rains may predispose
regions to ebola outbreaks by creating more favorable environments for bats hosting the virus.
20 Similarly, food scarcity brought about by drought, political instability or animal disease may lead to
more animal hunting, therefore raising the risk for ebola virus epidemic.
It is important to take note of the impact of climate change on epidemic risk, but it is equally
important to prepare for its impact on global health. The global health community has largely come
to realize that public health preparedness is crucial to responding efficiently to infectious disease
25 outbreaks. For this reason, our work is, then, centered around helping governments manage and
quantify infectious disease risk. Besides, regardless of weather patterns, insights into epidemics
and into mechanisms for ensuring adequate support are critical for managing this risk.
Since the public health community agrees that the question is not if another outbreak will happen,
but when, the steps we take in the coming years to prepare for and reduce the increasing frequency
of outbreaks will determine the broader implications these diseases have on our world.
The texts “Três teses sobre o avanço da febre amarela” and “The effect of climate change on epidemic risk”
mention possible reasons for disease outbreaks.
The reason which is presented in both texts is
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1 Chaplin was famous in a way that no one had been
before; arguably, no one has been as famous since. At the peak
of his popularity, his screen persona, the Tramp, was the most
4 recognized image in the world. His name came first in
discussions of the new medium as popular entertainment, and
in defences of it as a distinct art form — a cultural position
7 occupied afterwards only by the Beatles, whose own
era-defining popularity never equalled Chaplin’s. He’s the
closest thing the 20th century produced to a universal cultural
10 touchstone.
Film histories will invariably assert that Chaplin’s
mass popularity was owed to the way in which the Tramp
13 represented a destitute everyman. His films turned hunger,
laziness, and the feeling of being unwanted into comedy. He
was an ego artist, a performer with an uncanny relationship to
16 the camera who spent the early part of his career refining his
screen persona and the latter part of it deconstructing it.
Many a film critic raises the issue of Chaplin’s actual
19 relationship to the cultural moment of the time — and the fact
that his popularity survived several periods of sweeping
cultural change. His post-silent films — which include his two
22 most enduringly popular features, Modern Times and The
Great Dictator — reflect his own attitudes more than the
feelings of American audiences at the time. His mature work is
25 deliberately artificial, set in a world pieced together from
chunks of European and American past, present, and, in the
case of Modern Times, future.
Ignaty Vishnevetsky A century later, why does Chaplin
still matters?
Internet: Ignaty Vishnevetsky A century later, why does Chaplin
still matters? Internet: www film avclub com (adapted)
According to the text above, judge the following statements.
Charlie Chaplin and The Beatles played similar historical roles but his impact on the general cultural scene was far more profound than theirs.
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O texto a seguir é referência para a questão.

Ancient dreams of intelligent machines: 3,000 years of robots

    The French philosopher René Descartes was reputedly fond of automata: they inspired his view that living things were biological machines that function like clockwork. Less known is a strange story that began to circulate after the philosopher’s death in 1650. This centred on Descartes’s daughter Francine, who died of scarlet fever at the age of five.
    According to the tale, a distraught Descartes had a clockwork Francine made: a walking, talking simulacrum. When Queen Christina invited the philosopher to Sweden in 1649, he sailed with the automaton concealed in a casket. Suspicious sailors forced the trunk open; when the mechanical child sat up to greet them, the horrified crew threw it overboard.
    The story is probably apocryphal. But it sums up the hopes and fears that have been associated with human-like machines for nearly three millennia. Those who build such devices do so in the hope that they will overcome natural limits – in Descartes’s case, death itself. But this very unnaturalness terrifies and repulses others. In our era of advanced robotics and artificial intelligence (AI), those polarized responses persist, with pundits and the public applauding or warning against each advance. Digging into the deep history of intelligent machines, both real and imagined, we see how these attitudes evolved: from fantasies of trusty mechanical helpers to fears that runaway advances in technology might lead to creatures that supersede humanity itself.

(Disponível em: .)

According to the text, it is correct to say that René Descartes:

A preocupação com a emissão de gases poluentes no meio ambiente está muito presente na indústria automobilística. Recentemente, uma das soluções encontradas para contornar esse problema nos veículos movidos a Diesel foi o desenvolvimento do Arla 32, uma solução de ureia em água, que atua nos sistemas de exaustão, de acordo com as equações químicas abaixo:
CO(NH2)2 + H2O ? 2NH3 + CO2
 4NH3 + 4NO + O2 ? 4N2 + 6H2O
 4NH3 + 2NO2 + O2 ? 3N2 + 6H2O. 
Com base nessas informações, pode-se afirmar corretamente que a ação do Arla 32 leva a uma redução
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Analise as três afirmações seguintes sobre ciclos biogeoquímicos.
I. A respiração dos seres vivos e a queima de combustíveis fósseis e de vegetação restituem carbono à atmosfera. 
II. Diferentes tipos de bactérias participam da ciclagem do nitrogênio: as fixadoras, que transformam o gás nitrogênio em amônia, as nitrificantes, que produzem nitrito e nitrato, e as desnitrificantes, que devolvem o nitrogênio gasoso à atmosfera. 
III. Pelo processo da transpiração, as plantas bombeiam, continuamente, água do solo para a atmosfera, e esse vapor de água se condensa e contribui para a formação de nuvens, voltando à terra como chuva.
Está correto o que se afirma em
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Fake News ou não? Hoje em dia, a disponibilidade de informações é muito grande, mas precisamos saber interpretá-las corretamente. Um artigo na internet tem o seguinte título: “Glutamato monossódico, o sabor que mata!”. Em determinado ponto do texto, afirma-se:
“Só para você ter ideia dos riscos, organizações internacionais de saúde indicam que a ingestão diária de sódio para cada pessoa seja de 2,3 gramas. O glutamato é composto por 21% de sódio e, com certeza, não será o único tempero a ser acrescentado ao seu almoço ou jantar. Além disso, o realçador (glutamato) só conta um terço do nutriente que é encontrado no sal de cozinha.”
Dados de massas molares em g·mol-1: sódio = 23, cloreto = 35,5, glutamato monossódico = 169.
Para tornar a argumentação do artigo mais consistente do ponto de vista químico, você sugeriria a seguinte reescrita dos trechos destacados:
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The complex linguistic universe of

Game of Thrones

1.Game of Thrones has garnered 38 Emmy

2.awards for its portrayal of a world of sex,

3.violence and politics so real that some viewers

4.could imagine moving there. Part of that detail

5.has been the creation of the richest linguistic

6.universe since J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle Earth.

7.In the field of language-creation for fictional

8.worlds, there is Tolkien, and there is everybody

9.else. But David Peterson, the language-smith

10.of Game of Thrones , comes a close second for

11.the amount of thought put into its two

12.languages, Dothraki and Valyrian. The interest

13.in these tongues is such that a textbook for

14.learning Dothraki has been published, while

15.Duolingo, a popular online language-learning

16.platform, now offers a course in High Valyrian.

17.Inspired by fictional languages such as those

18.in the Star Wars films and with a master’s

19.degree in linguistics, Peterson made Dothraki

20.and Valyrian as rich and realistic as possible.

21.Creating words is the easy part; anyone can

22.string together nonsense syllables. But

23.Peterson, like Tolkien, took the trouble to give

24his words etymologies and cousins, so that

25.the word for “feud” is related to the words

26.“blood” and “fight”. To make the languages

27.pronounceable but clearly foreign, he put

28.non-English sounds in high-frequency words

29.(like khaleesi , or queen), put the stress in

30.typically non-English places, and had words

31.begin with combinations of sounds that are

32.impossible in English, like hr .

33.Armed with a knowledge of common linguistic

34.sound changes, he gives his languages the

35kinds of irregularities and disorder that arise in

36.the real world: High Valyrian’s obar

37(“curve”) becomes Astapori Valyrian’s uvor .

38.Words’ meanings—as in real life—drift, too,

39.giving the system more realistic messiness.

40.Languages also play a prominent role in the

41.storyline. Dothraki is the guttural language of

42.a horse-borne warrior nation, but high-born

43.Daenerys Targaryen does not look down on it;

44.methodically learning it is key to her rise.

45.Tyrion Lannister is left to administer the city

46.of Mereen despite his ropy command of

47.Valyrian, leading to some comic moments.

48.And a prophecy of a future hero acquires new

49.meaning when an interpreter explains that the

50.word in question is ambiguous in Valyrian—it

51.could be “prince” or “princess”.

52.It might seem odd that a highly sexist society

53.like the one of Game of Thrones would have

54.languages where sex roles were not clearly

55.marked, but languages are not always perfect

56.vehicles for a culture. Random change can

57.leave them with too many words for one

58.concept, and not enough for another. In this

59.way, the flawed nature of language reflects

60.the foibles of flawed humans and the

61.imperfect worlds they strive to create.

Adaptado de:

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Acesso em: 21 nov. 2017.

Considere as possibilidades de reescrita do segmento methodically learning it is key to her rise (l. 44). 

I - it is key to her rise methodically learning 

II - to learn methodically is key to her rise 

III- learning it methodically is key to her rise

Quais poderiam substituir o segmento destacado, sem prejuízo do sentido original e da correção gramatical?
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Uma das características mais fundamentais dos metazoários são os olhos, que se apresentam em
uma variedade de tipos. Quase todos são sensíveis à luz, e a maioria possui algum tipo de
fotorreceptor, porém somente os representantes de alguns filos desenvolveram olhos capazes de
formar imagens.
Os olhos compostos compreendem de poucas a muitas unidades fotorreceptoras cilíndricas
denominadas omatídios. Cada omatídio contribui com a imagem de uma parte do objeto, de modo
que o conjunto forma a sua imagem total.
Assinale a alternativa que indica, corretamente, qual grupo animal é caracterizado pelos olhos
descritos acima.
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A partir das informações apresentadas no texto, considere as seguintes afirmativas: 
1. Descartes viajou para a Suécia com um robô escondido. 
2. Os marinheiros abriram à força um baú que continha o simulacro de uma criança. 
3. A tripulação fez uma apresentação do robô para os passageiros do navio. 
4. Chocados com o que viram, os marinheiros jogaram o humanoide ao mar. 
Assinale a alternativa correta.