Questões de Concursos Aluno Oficial

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  • 1 - Questão 11145.   Inglês - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - Polícia Militar SP - VUNESP - 2014
  • Leia o texto para responder às questões:

    The Right to a “Custody Hearing” under International Law

    by Maria Laura Canineu
    February 3, 2014

            A person who is arrested has a right to be brought promptly before a judge. This is a longstanding and fundamental principle of international law, crucial for ensuring that the person’s arrest, treatment, and any ongoing detention are lawful.
            Yet, until now, Brazil has not respected this right. Detainees often go months before seeing a judge. For instance, in São Paulo state, which houses 37 percent of Brazil’s total prison population, most detainees are not brought before a judge for at least three months. The risk of ill-treatment is often highest during the initial stages of detention, when police are questioning a suspect. The delay makes detainees more vulnerable to torture and other serious forms of mistreatment by abusive police officers.
            In 2012, the UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment reported that it had received “repeated and consistent accounts of torture and ill-treatment” in São Paulo and other Brazilian states, “committed by, in particular, the military and civil police.” The torture had allegedly occurred in police custody or at the moment of arrest, on the street, inside private homes, or in hidden outdoor areas, and was described as “gratuitous violence, as a form of punishment, to extract confessions, and as a means of extortion.”
            In addition to violating the rights of detainees, these abusive practices make it more difficult for the police to establish the kind of public trust that is often crucial for effective crime control. These practices undermine legitimate efforts to promote public security and curb violent crime, and thus have a negative impact on Brazilian society as a whole.
            The right to be brought before a judge without unnecessary delay is enshrined in treaties long ago ratified by Brazil, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the American Convention on Human Rights. The United Nations Human Rights Committee, which is responsible for interpreting the ICCPR, has determined that the delay between the arrest of an accused and the time before he is brought before a judicial authority “should not exceed a few days,” even during states of emergency.
            Other countries in Latin America have incorporated this right into their domestic law. For instance, in Argentina, the federal Criminal Procedure Code requires that in cases of arrest without a judicial order, the detainee must be brought to a competent judicial authority within six hours.
            In contrast, Brazil’s criminal procedure code requires that when an adult is arrested in flagrante and held in police custody, only the police files of the case need to be presented to the judge within 24 hours, not the actual detainee. Judges evaluate the legality of the arrest and make the decision about whether to order continued detention or other precautionary measures based solely on the written documents provided by the police.
            The code establishes a maximum of 60 days for the first judicial hearing with the detainee, but does not explicitly say when this period begins. In practice, this often means that police in Brazil can keep people detained, with formal judicial authorization, for several months, without giving the detainee a chance to actually see a judge.
            According to the code, the only circumstance in which police need to bring a person before the judge immediately applies to cases of crimes not subject to bail in which arresting officer was not able to exhibit the arrest order to the person arrested at the time of arrest. Otherwise, the detainee may also not see a judge for several months.

    (www.hrw.org. Editado e adaptado)
  • The UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment stated that
  • 2 - Questão 15782.   Português - Interpretação de Textos - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - APMBB - VUNESP - 2012
  • Inocência não aparecia.

          Mal saía do quarto, pretextando recaída de sezões: entretanto, não era seu corpo o doente, não; a sua alma, sim, essa sofria morte e paixão; e amargas lágrimas, sobretudo à noite, lhe inundavam o rosto.
    – Meu Deus, exclamava ela, que será de mim? Nossa Senhora da Guia me socorra. Que pode fazer uma infeliz rapariga dos sertões contra tanta desgraça? Eu vivia tão sossegada neste retiro, amparada por meu pai... que agora tanto medo me mete... Deus do céu, piedade, piedade.
          E de joelhos, diante do tosco oratório alumiado por esguias velas de cera, orava com fervor, balbuciando as preces que costumava recitar antes de se deitar.
    Uma noite, disse ela:
    – Quisera uma reza que me enchesse mais o coração... que mais me aliviasse o peso da agonia de hoje...
    E, como levada de inspiração, prostrou-se murmurando:
    – Minha Nossa Senhora mãe da Virgem que nunca pecou, ide adiante de Deus. Pedi-lhe que tenha pena de mim... que não me deixe assim nesta dor cá dentro tão cruel. Estendei a vossa mão sobre mim. Se é crime amar a Cirino, mandai-me a morte. Que culpa tenho eu do que me sucede? Rezei tanto, para não gostar deste homem! Tudo... tudo... foi inútil! Por que então este suplício de todos os momentos? Nem sequer tem alívio no sono? Sempre ele... ele! (...)
          Quando a lembrança de Cirino se lhe apresentava mais viva, estorcia-se de desespero. A paixão punha-lhe o peito em fogo...

    (Visconde de Taunay, Inocência.)
  • Na primeira vez em que se dirige a Nossa Senhora, a protagonista usa um tratamento e, na segunda, outro. Uma das explicações é que, na segunda vez, ela
  • 3 - Questão 18745.   Português - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - ETAM - BIO-RIO - 2014
  • TEXTO 2

    Um livro de ensino de Geografia, da autoria de Demétrio Magnoli, ensina o seguinte:

           “A água é um recurso que se renova constantemente por meio do ciclo natural que envolve a atmosfera, a hidrosfera e a crosta. Mas é um recurso finito. Cerca de 97,5% de toda a água do planeta se encontra em oceanos e mares salgados. Do total de água doce, 69% encontram- se congelados em glaciares das montanhas e das altas latitudes e cerca de 30% estão em aquíferos. Os rios e lagos contêm menos de 1% do total de água doce.
          A contaminação de mananciais, o uso excessivo e o desperdício do recurso essencial provocam escassez de água. Ao longo do século XX, a demanda global de água doce dobrou a cada 20 anos. Se mantidos os padrões de consumo atuais, em 2025 cerca de dois terços da população mundial experimentarão escassez moderada ou severa de água.”
  • “Se mantidos os padrões de consumo atuais, em 2025 cerca de dois terços da população mundial experimentarão escassez moderada ou severa de água.” A afirmação “experimentarão escassez moderada ou severa de água” é:
  • 4 - Questão 15770.   Matemática - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - APMBB - VUNESP - 2012
  • Augusto fez compras em 5 lojas e gastou, em cada uma delas, metade do dinheiro que possuía no momento da compra. Na saída, ele pagou R$ 2,00 de estacionamento e ainda sobraram R$ 20,00. Com relação à quantia que Augusto possuía antes das compras, é correto afirmar que:
  • 5 - Questão 15773.   Matemática - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - APMBB - VUNESP - 2012
  • Um polinômio p(x) deixa resto 1 quando dividido por (x – 3) e resto 4 quando dividido por (x + 1). O resto da divisão desse polinômio por (x – 3)(x + 1) é:
  • 6 - Questão 18747.   Português - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - ETAM - BIO-RIO - 2014
  • TEXTO 2

    Um livro de ensino de Geografia, da autoria de Demétrio Magnoli, ensina o seguinte:

           “A água é um recurso que se renova constantemente por meio do ciclo natural que envolve a atmosfera, a hidrosfera e a crosta. Mas é um recurso finito. Cerca de 97,5% de toda a água do planeta se encontra em oceanos e mares salgados. Do total de água doce, 69% encontram- se congelados em glaciares das montanhas e das altas latitudes e cerca de 30% estão em aquíferos. Os rios e lagos contêm menos de 1% do total de água doce.
          A contaminação de mananciais, o uso excessivo e o desperdício do recurso essencial provocam escassez de água. Ao longo do século XX, a demanda global de água doce dobrou a cada 20 anos. Se mantidos os padrões de consumo atuais, em 2025 cerca de dois terços da população mundial experimentarão escassez moderada ou severa de água.”
  • Das palavras abaixo, aquela que é formada por um processo diferente das demais é:
  • 7 - Questão 15786.   Inglês - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - APMBB - VUNESP - 2012
  • Police and Human Rights – Manual for Police Training

    How can respecting human rights help the police?

    Respect for human rights by law enforcement agencies actually enhances the effectiveness of those agencies. Where human rights are systematically respected, police officers have developed professionalism in their approaches to solving and preventing crime and maintaining public order. In this sense, respect for human rights by police is, in addition to being a moral, legal and ethical imperative, also a practical requirement for law enforcement. When the police are seen to respect, uphold and defend human rights:

    • Public confidence is built and community cooperation fostered.
    • Legal prosecutions are successful in court. • Police are seen as part of the community, performing a valuable social function.
    • The fair administration of justice is served, and, consequently, confidence in the system.
    • An example is set for respect for the law by others in the society.
    • Police are able to be closer to the community, and, therefore, in a position to prevent and solve crimes through proactive policing.
    • Support is elicited from the media, from the international community, and from higher authorities.
    • A contribution is made to the peaceful resolution of conflicts and complaints. 

    An effective police service is one that serves as the first line of defense in the protection of human rights. Its members carry out their work in a way, which does not rely upon fear and raw power but, on the contrary, is based on regard for the law, honor, and professionalism.

    What role does training play in protecting human rights?

    The effective training of police in human rights is an essential element in the global efforts to promote and protect human rights in every country. In order to protect human rights, the police must first know and understand them. Furthermore, police officers must be familiar with the various international guidelines and bodies of principles – such as the Code of Conduct for law enforcement officials and the principles on the use of force and firearms – and be able to use them as tools in their everyday work. They must understand the fact that international human rights standards concerning their work were developed to provide invaluable guidance for the performance of their crucial functions in a democratic society. However, police officers in the line of duty should know not only what the rules are, but also how to do their job effectively within the confines of those rules.

    Doesn’t concern for human rights hinder effective police work? 

    Most people have heard the argument that respect for human rights is somehow opposed to effective law enforcement. And effective law enforcement means to capture the criminal. And to secure his conviction, it is necessary to “bend the rules” a little. A tendency to use overwhelming force in controlling demonstrations, physical pressure to extract information from detainees, or excessive force to secure an arrest can be observed now and then. In this way of thinking, law enforcement is a war against crime, and human rights are merely obstacles thrown in the path of the police by lawyers and NGOs. In fact, violations of human rights ––78–––– police only make the already challenging task of law enforcement ––– 79––– . When the law enforcer ––– 80––– the lawbreaker, the result is an assault on human dignity, on the law itself and on all institutions of public authority.

    (G. Kalajdziev, et al. www.humanrights.dk. Adaptado.)
  • Whenever enforcing the law, police should
  • 8 - Questão 11135.   Geografia - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - Polícia Militar SP - VUNESP - 2014
  • A “Nova Ordem Mundial” foi uma expressão assinalada no momento da queda do Muro de Berlim e da dissolução da URSS. Pode-se afirmar que, após o encerramento da Guerra Fria, o cenário geopolítico mundial caracteriza-se pela
  • 9 - Questão 15790.   Inglês - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - APMBB - VUNESP - 2012
  • Police and Human Rights – Manual for Police Training

    How can respecting human rights help the police?

    Respect for human rights by law enforcement agencies actually enhances the effectiveness of those agencies. Where human rights are systematically respected, police officers have developed professionalism in their approaches to solving and preventing crime and maintaining public order. In this sense, respect for human rights by police is, in addition to being a moral, legal and ethical imperative, also a practical requirement for law enforcement. When the police are seen to respect, uphold and defend human rights:

    • Public confidence is built and community cooperation fostered.
    • Legal prosecutions are successful in court. • Police are seen as part of the community, performing a valuable social function.
    • The fair administration of justice is served, and, consequently, confidence in the system.
    • An example is set for respect for the law by others in the society.
    • Police are able to be closer to the community, and, therefore, in a position to prevent and solve crimes through proactive policing.
    • Support is elicited from the media, from the international community, and from higher authorities.
    • A contribution is made to the peaceful resolution of conflicts and complaints. 

    An effective police service is one that serves as the first line of defense in the protection of human rights. Its members carry out their work in a way, which does not rely upon fear and raw power but, on the contrary, is based on regard for the law, honor, and professionalism.

    What role does training play in protecting human rights?

    The effective training of police in human rights is an essential element in the global efforts to promote and protect human rights in every country. In order to protect human rights, the police must first know and understand them. Furthermore, police officers must be familiar with the various international guidelines and bodies of principles – such as the Code of Conduct for law enforcement officials and the principles on the use of force and firearms – and be able to use them as tools in their everyday work. They must understand the fact that international human rights standards concerning their work were developed to provide invaluable guidance for the performance of their crucial functions in a democratic society. However, police officers in the line of duty should know not only what the rules are, but also how to do their job effectively within the confines of those rules.

    Doesn’t concern for human rights hinder effective police work? 

    Most people have heard the argument that respect for human rights is somehow opposed to effective law enforcement. And effective law enforcement means to capture the criminal. And to secure his conviction, it is necessary to “bend the rules” a little. A tendency to use overwhelming force in controlling demonstrations, physical pressure to extract information from detainees, or excessive force to secure an arrest can be observed now and then. In this way of thinking, law enforcement is a war against crime, and human rights are merely obstacles thrown in the path of the police by lawyers and NGOs. In fact, violations of human rights ––78–––– police only make the already challenging task of law enforcement ––– 79––– . When the law enforcer ––– 80––– the lawbreaker, the result is an assault on human dignity, on the law itself and on all institutions of public authority.

    (G. Kalajdziev, et al. www.humanrights.dk. Adaptado.)
  • No trecho – However, police officers in the line of duty should know not only what the rules are – a palavra should pode ser substituída, sem alteração de sentido, por
  • 10 - Questão 15768.   Geografia - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - APMBB - VUNESP - 2012
  • Em relação à ocorrência de terremotos e tsunamis, é correto afirmar que os