Questões de Inglês para Concursos

Resolva Questões de Inglês para Concursos Grátis. Exercícios com Perguntas e Respostas. Provas Online com Gabarito.

  • 1 - Questão 43088 - Inglês - Nível Médio - Soldado do Corpo de Bombeiro - Bombeiro Militar MG - FUNDEP - 2016
  • INSTRUCTIONS: Read the following text carefully and then choose the correct answer. 
    Leonardo da Vinci

    Known as the greatest artist in the history of mankind, Leonardo da Vinci was also a great philosopher and scientist. Leonardo is the most influential figure in the Italian Renaissance and he is considered to be an inventive multi-genius.
    Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci, Italy, as the child of Piero da Vinci, a notary, and Caterina, a country girl. He stayed with his father’s family and they moved to Florence when he was just 12. At the age of 14, Leonardo started out his artist’s apprenticeship at the studio of Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488), an Italian sculptor, goldsmith and painter.
    The art of painting made Leonardo knowledgeable about anatomy and perspective. In addition to painting, Verrocchio’s studio also offered technical and mechanical arts and sculpture. Leonardo had developed an interest in architecture so he went on to study engineering. 
    After a decade of highly original work as an artist, Leonardo wrote to several wealthy men to help finance his projects. The Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza (1452-1508), accepted his offer as Leonardo told him that he could design war weapons like guns and mines, and also structures like collapsible bridges. He lived in Milan with the Duke from 1482 to 1508, reportedly creating very innovational war machines. He also did painting and sculpture, as well as urban planning for large-scale water projects. There, he also wrote about making a telescope to view the moon.

    Available at: < http://www.famousscientists.org/leonardo-da-vinci> (Edited).
  • Leonardo da Vinci was an inventive multi-genius. He devoted his attention to many different things during his life. According to the text, he was interested in all the following activities, EXCEPT:
  • 2 - Questão 18460 - Inglês - Nível Superior - Sargento da Aeronáutica - EEAR - FAB - 2014
  • Dont drink and ride

    Alcohol can increase your risk of being hurt in a car accident, even if you aren"t behind the wheel. A new University of Michigan study reports that men who have been drinking are 50 percent more likely to experience a serious injury during a car accident than sober passengers.

    The word “who", underlined in the text, can be replaced by
  • 3 - Questão 46614 - Inglês - Nível Superior - Cirurgião Dentista - AMAZUL - CETRO - 2015
  • Background 

    The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP) started in 1948. Since that time, the NNPP has provided safe and effective propulsion systems to power submarines, surface combatants, and aircraft carriers. Today, nuclear propulsion enables virtually undetectable US Navy submarines, including the sea-based leg of the strategic triad, and provides essentially inexhaustible propulsion power independent of forward logistical support to both our submarines and aircraft carriers. Over forty percent of the Navy"s major combatant ships are nuclear-powered, and because of their demonstrated safety and reliability, these ships have access to seaports throughout the world. The NNPP has consistently sought the best way to affordably meet Navy requirements by evaluating, developing, and delivering a variety of reactor types, fuel systems, and structural materials. The Program has investigated many different fuel systems and reactor design features, and has designed, built, and operated over thirty different reactor designs in over twenty plant types to employ the most promising of these developments in practical applications. Improvements in naval reactor design have allowed increased power and energy to keep pace with the operational requirements of the modern nuclear fleet, while maintaining a conservative design approach that ensures reliability and safety to the crew, the public, and the environment. As just one example of the progress that has been made, the earliest reactor core designs in the NAUTILUS required refueling after about two years while modern reactor cores can last the life of a submarine, or over thirty years without refueling. These improvements have been the result of prudent, conservative engineering, backed by analysis, testing, and prototyping. The NNPP was also a pioneer in developing basic technologies and transferring technology to the civilian nuclear electric power industry. For example, the Program demonstrated the feasibility of commercial nuclear power generation in this country by designing, constructing and operating the Shipping port Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania and showing the feasibility of a thorium-based breeder reactor. 

    In: Report on Low Enriched Uranium for Naval Reactor Cores. Page 1. Report to Congress, January 2014. Office of Naval Reactors. US Dept. of Energy. DC 2058 http://fissilematerials.org/library/doe14.pdf 
     
    Read the passage taken of the text below. 

    “The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP) started in 1948. Since that time, the NNPP has provided safe and effective propulsion systems to power submarines, surface combatants, and aircraft carriers. Today, nuclear propulsion enables virtually undetectable US Navy submarines, including the sea-based leg of the strategic triad, and provides essentially inexhaustible propulsion power independent of forward logistical support to both our submarines and aircraft carriers.” 

    Choose the alternative in which the words can properly substitute the ones in bold and underlined, respectively.
  • 4 - Questão 29732 - Inglês - Nível Médio - Guarda Portuário - CODESP SP - VUNESP - 2011
  •      The ability of a helicopter to hover and land almost anywhere makes it an enormously useful machine. But helicopters have their limitations, particularly when it comes to flying fast. In a recent series of test flights, a new type of chopper has begun smashing speed records.
         The x2 is an experimental helicopter being developed by Sikorsky, an American company, which hopes it will be zipping along at more than 460kph. The company, however, is interested in more than just breaking speed records. It plans to use the technology developed for the x2 in commercial helicopters.
         Sikorsky reckons that future helicopters built using the x2 technology would be extremely versatile machines. They would dash to and from a medical emergency a lot faster. They would also be very agile in flight, which would increase their capabilities in combat.

    (Adapted from The Economist September 11, 2010, page 98)
  • O texto diz que uma das limitações do helicóptero refere-se
  • 5 - Questão 46607 - Inglês - Nível Superior - Cirurgião Dentista - AMAZUL - CETRO - 2015
  • Read the text below to answer the questions 11-15. 

    NASA Researchers Studying Advanced Nuclear Rocket Technologies 

    January 9, 2013 

    By using an innovative test facility at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., researchers are able to use non-nuclear materials to simulate nuclear thermal rocket fuels - ones capable of propelling bold new exploration missions to the Red Planet and beyond. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage team is tackling a three-year project to demonstrate the viability of nuclear propulsion system technologies. A nuclear rocket engine uses a nuclear reactor to heat hydrogen to very high temperatures, which expands through a nozzle to generate thrust. Nuclear rocket engines generate higher thrust and are more than twice as efficient as conventional chemical rocket engines. 

    The team recently used Marshall’s Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator, or NTREES, to perform realistic, non-nuclear testing of various materials for nuclear thermal rocket fuel elements. In an actual reactor, the fuel elements would contain uranium, but no radioactive materials are used during the NTREES tests. Among the fuel options are a graphite composite and a “cermet” composite - a blend of ceramics and metals. Both materials were investigated in previous NASA and U.S. Department of Energy research efforts. 

    Nuclear-powered rocket concepts are not new; the United States conducted studies and significant ground testing from 1955 to 1973 to determine the viability of nuclear propulsion systems, but ceased testing when plans for a crewed Mars mission were deferred. 

    The NTREES facility is designed to test fuel elements and materials in hot flowing hydrogen, reaching pressures up to 1,000 pounds per square inch and temperatures of nearly 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit - conditions that simulate space-based nuclear propulsion systems to provide baseline data critical to the research team.

    “This is vital testing, helping us reduce risks and costs associated with advanced propulsion technologies and ensuring excellent performance and results as we progress toward further system development and testing,” said Mike Houts, project manager for nuclear systems at Marshall. 

    A first-generation nuclear cryogenic propulsion system could propel human explorers to Mars more efficiently than conventional spacecraft, reducing crews’ exposure to harmful space radiation and other effects of long-term space missions. It could also transport heavy cargo and science payloads. Further development and use of a first-generation nuclear system could also provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced propulsion technologies and systems in the future - ones that could take human crews even farther into the solar system. 

    Building on previous, successful research and using the NTREES facility, NASA can safely and thoroughly test simulated nuclear fuel elements of various sizes, providing important test data to support the design of a future Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. A nuclear cryogenic upper stage - its liquid- hydrogen propellant chilled to super-cold temperatures for launch - would be designed to be safe during all mission phases and would not be started until the spacecraft had reached a safe orbit and was ready to begin its journey to a distant destination. Prior to startup in a safe orbit, the nuclear system would be cold, with no fission products generated from nuclear operations, and with radiation below significant levels. 

    “The information we gain using this test facility will permit engineers to design rugged, efficient fuel elements and nuclear propulsion systems,” said NASA researcher Bill Emrich, who manages the NTREES facility at Marshall. “It’s our hope that it will enable us to develop a reliable, cost-effective nuclear rocket engine in the not-too-distant future." 

    The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage project is part of the Advanced Exploration Systems program, which is managed by NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate and includes participation by the U.S. Department of Energy. The program, which focuses on crew safety and mission operations in deep space, seeks to pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future vehicle development and human missions beyond Earth orbit. 

    Marshall researchers are partnering on the project with NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio; NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston; Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls; Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, N.M.; and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tenn. 

    The Marshall Center leads development of the Space Launch System for NASA. The Science & Technology Office at Marshall strives to apply advanced concepts and capabilities to the research, development and management of a broad spectrum of NASA programs, projects and activities that fall at the very intersection of science and exploration, where every discovery and achievement furthers scientific knowledge and understanding, and supports the agency’s ambitious mission to expand humanity’s reach across the solar system. The NTREES test facility is just one of numerous cutting-edge space propulsion and science research facilities housed in the state-of- the-art Propulsion Research & Development Laboratory at Marshall, contributing to development of the Space Launch System and a variety of other NASA programs and missions. 

    Available in: http://www.nasa.gov 
     
    Read the excerpt below taken from the text. 

    “The program, which focuses on crew safety and mission operations in deep space, seeks to pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future vehicle development and human missions beyond Earth orbit.” 

    Choose the alternative that presents the words that best substitutes, respectively, the bold and underlined ones in the sentences above
  • 6 - Questão 5045 - Inglês - Nível Médio - Técnico de enfermagem - SERPRO - CESPE - 2008
  •      It now seems to me that what matters most in the majority
    of organizations is to have reasonably intelligent, hard-working
    managers who have a sense of pride and loyalty toward their
    organization; who can get to the root of a problem and are inclined
    toward action; who are decent human beings with a natural empathy
    and concern for people; who possess humor, humility, and common
    sense; and who are able to couple drive with stick-to-it-iveness* and
    patience in the accomplishment of a goal.
         It is the ability to make positive things happen that most
    distinguishes the successful manager from the mediocre or
    unsuccessful one. It is far better to have dependable managers who
    can make the right things happen in a timely fashion than to have
    brilliant, sophisticated, highly educated executives who are excellent
    at planning and analyzing, but who are not so good at implementing.
    The most cherished manager is the one who says “I can do it,” and
    then does.
         Many business schools continue to focus almost exclusively
    on the development of analytical skills. As a result, these schools are
    continuing to graduate large numbers of students who know a great
    deal about analyzing strategies, dissecting balance sheets, and using
    computers — but who still don’t know how to manage!
         As a practical matter, of course, schools can go only so far
    in teaching their students to manage. Only actual work experience
    will fully develop the kinds of managerial traits, skills, and virtues
    that I have discussed here.

    *the ability and determination to continue doing something despite difficulties.
    Wegman, Knezevic, Bernstein. A reading skills book, 3.d
    ed. Mac Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. (adapted).

    Based on the text above, judge the items below.
  • Most organizations are now interested in reasonably intelligent workers and who work hard.
  • 7 - Questão 14164 - Inglês - Nível Médio - Agente de Inteligência - ABIN - CESPE - 2008
  • UN announces program to help hunger hot spots

    A UN agency rolled out a $ 214 million program Tuesday to help 16 needy places hit hard by high prices for food and oil, amid a crisis already making it hard for aid groups to provide enough food for the worlds hungry.

    The World Food Program said almost 1 billion poor people around the world are struggling to survive amid the higher prices. The agency is trying to reach those in critical need of assistance in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.

    "Food prices are not abating, and the worlds most vulnerable have exhausted their coping strategies", said Josette Sheeran, the agencys executive director. "Our action plan is targeted and customized to help the most vulnerable meet their urgent needs.
    "The plan will provide assistance to groups such as pregnant women, undernourished children and people living in urban areas affected most by the food crisis.

    The Rome-based agency also hopes to cut transportation costs and help support farmers in countries where emergency food can be bought locally.

    But the agency already faces "obstacles" in procuring food, particularly when trying to buy supplies locally, spokeswoman Brenda Barton said.
    "At the markets we have been buying food it has become just too expensive", Barton told The Associated Press by telephone. And she added: "a lot of markets just dont have any food to buy."
    Internet: (adapted).

    Based on the text above, it can be deduced that
  • local provisions of food are particularly easy to find.
  • 8 - Questão 21464 - Inglês - Nível Superior - Analista de Política Econômica e Monetária - BACEN - CESPE - 2013
  •     Recent corporate collapses, such as EBS International and Société Générale, have brought about renewed scrutiny into corporate governance mechanisms. Given the pervasiveness of Information Technology (IT) in many organizations, the examination of corporate governance mechanisms also includes IT governance mechanisms. IT governance is defined as “a structure of relationships and processes to direct and control the enterprise in order to achieve the enterprise’s goals by adding value while balancing risk versus return over IT and its processes”.
        In light of increased public awareness, professional bodies such as the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) have undertaken a number of steps to provide guidance in the implementation of effective IT governance. The approach taken by ISACA appears to be largely based upon two concepts. The first concept relates to increasing the awareness of issues and concepts relating to IT governance in the public domain. The second concept involves the provision of guidelines and the identification of best-practice IT governance mechanisms. Interestingly, the effectiveness of these best-practice mechanisms in improving IT governance is largely based upon conceptual arguments. As such, it becomes important to ascertain if these best-practice mechanisms do impact upon the level of IT governance.
        As IT escalates in terms of importance and pervasiveness in the operations of firms, it is inexorably tied to specific mechanisms that are prescribed for good corporate governance, most notably, a sound system of internal controls. Accordingly, effective IT governance is a critical underpinning for a system of good corporate governance that minimizes agency losses for a firm.

    Internet: < http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com > (adapted).

    Based on the text above, judge the following item. 
  • In spite of the pervasiveness of IT in many organizations, it is essential for enterprises to balance risks and detect fraud.
  • 9 - Questão 11494 - Inglês - Nível Médio - Cadete do Exército - EsPCEx - EB - 2013
  • President Obama Launches Gun-Violence Task Force

    Five days after deadliest elementary school shooting in U.S. history, President Obama said his administration plans immediate action early next year on proposals to curb an “epidemic of gun violence”. At a morning news conference, Obama announced the formation of a task force to be headed by Vice President Joe Biden that will formulate a package of policy recommendations by January. “The fact that this problem is complex can no longer be an excuse for doing nothing”, Obama said. “The fact that we can’t prevent every act of violence doesn’t mean that we can’t steadily reduce the violence and prevent the very worst violence.” The president said he intends to push for implementation of the proposals “without delay”. “This is a team that has a very specific task to pull together real reforms right now”, he said.

    While Obama did not offer specifics, he suggested the task force would examine an array of steps to curb gun violence and prevent mass shootings, including legislative measures, mental health resources and a “look more closely at a culture that all-too-often glorifies guns and violence”. “I will use all the powers of this office to help advance efforts aimed at preventing more tragedies like this”, Obama said.

    Obama made similar pronouncements following at least four other mass shootings that marked his first term. But few policy changes were made. “This is not the first incident of horrific gun violence of your four years. Where have you been?”, asked ABC News’ Jake Tapper. “I’ve been president of the United States, dealing with the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, an auto industry on the verge of collapse, two wars. I don’t think I’ve been on vacation”, Obama responded.
  • In the sentences “... proposals to curb an “epidemic of gun violence”...” and “an array of steps to curb gun violence...”, the word curb means