Questões de Inglês para Concursos

Resolva Questões de Inglês para Concursos Grátis. Exercícios com Perguntas e Respostas. Provas Online com Gabarito.

  • 1 - Questão 53066.   Inglês - Nível Médio - Sargento da Aeronáutica - EEAR - 2017
  • Complete the sentences below using make or do:

    1 – She forgot to __________ her homework.
    2 – During the text, try not to __________ a noise.
    3 – She needs to __________ an appointment to see the destist.
    4 – Every morning I _________ my bed.
  • 2 - Questão 29444.   Inglês - Nível Superior - Arquivista - CODEMIG - FGV - 2015
  • TEXT 3
    Sustainable mining – oxymoron or a way of the future?


    Mining is an activity that has persisted since the start of humans using tools. However, one might argue that digging a big hole in the ground and selling the finite resources that come out of that hole is not sustainable, especially when the digging involves the use of other finite resources (i.e. fuels) and produces a lot of greenhouse gases.

    The counter argument could go along the lines that minerals are not being lost or destroyed through mining and mineral processing – the elements are being shifted around, and converted into new forms. Metals can even be extracted from waste, seawater or even sewage, and recycled. But a more simple argument is possible: a mine can be sustainable if it is economically, socially and environmentally beneficial in the short and long term. To be sustainable, the positive benefits of mining should outweigh any negative impacts. […]

    Social positives are often associated with mines in regional areas, such as providing better amenities in a nearby town, or providing employment (an economic and social positive). Social negatives can also occur, such as dust, noise, traffic and visual amenity. These are commonly debated and, whilst sometimes controversial, can be managed with sufficient corporate commitment, stakeholder engagement, and enough time to work through the issues. Time is the key parameter - it may take several years for a respectful process of community input, but as long as it is possible for social negatives to be outweighed by social positives, then the project will be socially sustainable.

    It is most likely that a mine development will have some environmental negatives, such as direct impacts on flora and fauna through clearing of vegetation and habitat within the mine footprint. Some mines will have impacts which extend beyond the mine site, such as disruption to groundwater, production of silt and disposal of waste. Certainly these impacts will need to be managed throughout the mine life, along with robust rehabilitation and closure planning. […]

    The real turning point will come when mining companies go beyond environmental compliance to create "heritage projects" that can enhance the environmental or social benefits in a substantial way – by more than the environmental offsets needed just to make up for the negatives created by the mine. In order to foster these innovative mining heritage projects we need to promote "sustainability assessments" - not just "environmental assessments". This will lead to a more mature appreciation of the whole system whereby the economic and social factors, as well as environmental factors, are considered in a holistic manner.

    (adapted from https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/western-australia-division/sustainable-mining-oxymoron-or-way-future. Retrieved on August 10, 2015)
  • The excerpt “one might argue" (l. 2) expresses:
  • 3 - Questão 48476.   Inglês - Nível Superior - Tecnologista Pleno - MCT - CESPE - 2012
  •      A pair of new technologies could reduce the cost of capturing carbon dioxide from coal plants and help utilities comply with existing and proposed environmental regulations, including requirements to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Both involve burning coal in the presence of pure oxygen rather than air, which is mostly nitrogen. The basic idea of burning fossil fuels in pure oxygen is not new. The drawback is that it is more expensive than conventional coal plant technology, because it requires additional equipment to separate oxygen and nitrogen. The new technologies attempt to offset at least some of this cost by improving efficiency and reducing capital costs in other areas of a coal plant.
    Internet: < m.technologyreview.com> (adapted).
     
    According to the text, it can be concluded that

    conventional coal plants are not equipped to separate oxygen from nitrogen.
  • 4 - Questão 11151.   Inglês - Nível Médio - Aluno Oficial - Polícia Militar SP - VUNESP - 2014
  • Leia o texto para responder às questões:

    The Right to a “Custody Hearing” under International Law

    by Maria Laura Canineu
    February 3, 2014

            A person who is arrested has a right to be brought promptly before a judge. This is a longstanding and fundamental principle of international law, crucial for ensuring that the person’s arrest, treatment, and any ongoing detention are lawful.
            Yet, until now, Brazil has not respected this right. Detainees often go months before seeing a judge. For instance, in São Paulo state, which houses 37 percent of Brazil’s total prison population, most detainees are not brought before a judge for at least three months. The risk of ill-treatment is often highest during the initial stages of detention, when police are questioning a suspect. The delay makes detainees more vulnerable to torture and other serious forms of mistreatment by abusive police officers.
            In 2012, the UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment reported that it had received “repeated and consistent accounts of torture and ill-treatment” in São Paulo and other Brazilian states, “committed by, in particular, the military and civil police.” The torture had allegedly occurred in police custody or at the moment of arrest, on the street, inside private homes, or in hidden outdoor areas, and was described as “gratuitous violence, as a form of punishment, to extract confessions, and as a means of extortion.”
            In addition to violating the rights of detainees, these abusive practices make it more difficult for the police to establish the kind of public trust that is often crucial for effective crime control. These practices undermine legitimate efforts to promote public security and curb violent crime, and thus have a negative impact on Brazilian society as a whole.
            The right to be brought before a judge without unnecessary delay is enshrined in treaties long ago ratified by Brazil, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the American Convention on Human Rights. The United Nations Human Rights Committee, which is responsible for interpreting the ICCPR, has determined that the delay between the arrest of an accused and the time before he is brought before a judicial authority “should not exceed a few days,” even during states of emergency.
            Other countries in Latin America have incorporated this right into their domestic law. For instance, in Argentina, the federal Criminal Procedure Code requires that in cases of arrest without a judicial order, the detainee must be brought to a competent judicial authority within six hours.
            In contrast, Brazil’s criminal procedure code requires that when an adult is arrested in flagrante and held in police custody, only the police files of the case need to be presented to the judge within 24 hours, not the actual detainee. Judges evaluate the legality of the arrest and make the decision about whether to order continued detention or other precautionary measures based solely on the written documents provided by the police.
            The code establishes a maximum of 60 days for the first judicial hearing with the detainee, but does not explicitly say when this period begins. In practice, this often means that police in Brazil can keep people detained, with formal judicial authorization, for several months, without giving the detainee a chance to actually see a judge.
            According to the code, the only circumstance in which police need to bring a person before the judge immediately applies to cases of crimes not subject to bail in which arresting officer was not able to exhibit the arrest order to the person arrested at the time of arrest. Otherwise, the detainee may also not see a judge for several months.

    (www.hrw.org. Editado e adaptado)
  • No trecho final do último parágrafo – Otherwise, the detainee may also not see a judge for several months. –, o termo otherwise equivale, em português, a
  • 5 - Questão 47677.   Inglês - Nível Superior - Professor de Inglês - Prefeitura de Biguaçu SC - UNISUL - 2016
  • English as a Global Language

    For more than half a century, immigrants from the Indian subcontinent and the West Indies have added variety and diversity to the rich patchwork of accents and dialects spoken in the UK. British colonisers originally exported the language to all four corners of the globe and migration in the 1950s brought altered forms of English back to these shores. ___________(1) that time, especially in urban areas, speakers of Asian and Caribbean descent have blended their mother tongue speech patterns with existing local dialects producing wonderful new varieties of English, ___________(2) London Jamaican or Bradford Asian English. Standard British English has also been enriched by an explosion of new terms, such as balti (a dish invented in the West Midlands and defined by a word that would refer to a "bucket" rather than food to most South Asians outside the UK) and bhangra (traditional Punjabi music mixed with reggae and hiphop).
    The recordings on this site of speakers from minority ethnic backgrounds include a range of speakers. You can hear speakers whose speech is heavily influenced by their racial background, alongside those whose speech reveals nothing of their family background and some who are ranged somewhere in between. There are also a set of audio clips that shed light on some of the more recognisable features of Asian English and Caribbean English.
    Slang
    As with the Anglo-Saxon and Norman settlers of centuries past, the languages spoken by today’s ethnic communities have begun to have an impact on the everyday spoken English of other communities. For instance, many young people, regardless of their ethnic background, now use the black slang terms, nang (‘cool,’) and diss (‘insult’ — from ‘disrespecting’) or words derived from Hindi and Urdu, such as chuddies (‘underpants’) or desi (‘typically Asian’). Many also use the all-purpose tag-question, innit — as in statements such as you’re weird, innit. This feature has been variously ascribed to the British Caribbean community or the British Asian community, although it is also part of a more native British tradition - in dialects in the West Country and Wales, for instance — which might explain why it appears to have spread so rapidly among young speakers everywhere.
    Original influences from overseas
    The English Language can be traced back to the mixture of Anglo-Saxon dialects that came to these shores 1500 years ago. Since then it has been played with, altered and transported around the world in many different forms. The language we now recognise as English first became the dominant language in Great Britain during the Middle Ages, and in Ireland during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. From there it has been exported in the mouths of colonists and settlers to all four corners of the globe. ‘International English’, ‘World English’ or ‘Global English’ are terms used to describe a type of ‘General English’ that has, over the course of the twentieth century, become a worldwide means of communication. 
    American English 
    The first permanent English-speaking colony was established in North America in the early 1600s. The Americans soon developed a form of English that differed in a number of ways from the language spoken back in The British Isles. In some cases older forms were retained — the way most Americans pronounce the sound after a vowel in words like start, north, nurse and letter is probably very similar to pronunciation in 17th century England. Similarly, the distinction between past tense got and past participle gotten still exists in American English but has been lost in most dialects of the UK. 
    But the Americans also invented many new words to describe landscapes, wildlife, vegetation, food and lifestyles. Different pronunciations of existing words emerged as new settlers arrived from various parts of the UK and established settlements scattered along the East Coast and further inland. After the USA achieved independence from Great Britain in 1776 any sense of who ‘owned’ and set the ‘correct rules’ for the English Language became increasingly blurred. Different forces operating in the UK and in the USA influenced the emerging concept of a Standard English. The differences are perhaps first officially promoted in the spelling conventions proposed by Noah Webster in The American Spelling Book (1786) and subsequently adopted in his later work, An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). Both of these publications were enormously successful and established spellings such as center and color and were therefore major steps towards scholarly acceptance that British English and American English were becoming distinct entities.
    Influence of Empire
    Meanwhile, elsewhere, the British Empire was expanding dramatically, and during the 1700s British English established footholds in parts of Africa, in India, Australia and New Zealand. The colonisation process in these countries varied. In Australia and New Zealand, European settlers quickly outnumbered the indigenous population and so English was established as the dominant language. In India and Africa, however, centuries of colonial rule saw English imposed as an administrative language, spoken as a mother tongue by colonial settlers from the UK, but in most cases as a second language by the local population.
    English around the world
    Like American English, English in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa has evolved such that they are distinct from British English. However, cultural and political ties have meant that until relatively recently British English has acted as the benchmark for representing ‘standardised’ English — spelling tends to adhere to British English conventions, for instance. Elsewhere in Africa and on the Indian subcontinent, English is still used as an official language in several countries, even though these countries are independent of British rule. However, English remains very much a second language for most people, used in administration, education and government and as a means of communicating between speakers of diverse languages. As with most of the Commonwealth, British English is the model on which, for instance, Indian English or Nigerian English is based. In the Caribbean and especially in Canada, however, historical links with the UK compete with geographical, cultural and economic ties with the USA, so that some aspects of the local varieties of English follow British norms and others reflect US usage. 
    An international language
    English is also hugely important as an international language and plays an important part even in countries where the UK has historically had little influence. It is learnt as the principal foreign language in most schools in Western Europe. It is also an essential part of the curriculum in far-flung places like Japan and South Korea, and is increasingly seen as desirable by millions of speakers in China. Prior to WWII, most teaching of English as a foreign language used British English as its model, and textbooks and other educational resources were produced here in the UK for use overseas. This reflected the UK"s cultural dominance and its perceived ‘ownership’ of the English Language. Since 1945, however, the increasing economic power of the USA and its unrivalled influence in popular culture has meant that American English has become the reference point for learners of English in places like Japan and even to a certain extent in some European countries. British English remains the model in most Commonwealth countries where English is learnt as a second language. However, as the history of English has shown, this situation may not last indefinitely. The increasing commercial and economic power of countries like India, for instance, might mean that Indian English will one day begin to have an impact beyond its own borders.

    https://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/minority-ethnic/ 

    In the passage: “The colonisation process in these countries varied. In Australia and New Zealand, European settlers quickly outnumbered the indigenous population and so English was established as the dominant language.” The best translation to Portuguese of the word outnumberd is:
  • 6 - Questão 30385.   Inglês - Nível Superior - Analista Trainee de Ciências Contábeis - CPTM - MAKIYAMA - 2012
  •  Generation Y
    By Sally Kane, About.com Guide

    Born in the mid-1980"s and later, Generation Y legal professionals are in their 20s and are just entering the workforce. With numbers estimated as high as 70 million, Generation Y (also -1- as the Millennials) is the fastest growing segment of today"s workforce. As law firms compete for available talent, employers cannot ignore the needs, desires and attitudes of this vast generation. Below are a few common traits that define Generation Y.

    Tech-Savvy: Generation Y grew up with technology and rely on it to perform their jobs better. Armed with BlackBerrys, laptops, cellphones and other gadgets, Generation Y is plugged-in 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This generation prefers to communicate through e-mail and text messaging rather than face-to-face contact and -2- webinars and online technology to traditional lecture-based presentations.

    Family-Centric: The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y who is willing to trade high pay for fewer billable hours, flexible schedules and a better work/life balance. While older generations may view this attitude as narcissistic or lacking commitment, discipline and drive, Generation Y legal professionals have a different vision of workplace expectations and prioritize family over work.

    Achievement-Oriented: Nurtured and pampered -3- parents who did not want to make the mistakes of the previous generation, Generation Y is confident, ambitious and achievement-oriented. They have high expectations of their employers, seek out new challenges and are not afraid to question authority. Generation Y wants meaningful work and a solid learning curve

    Team-Oriented: As children, Generation Y participated in team sports, play groups and other group activities. They value teamwork and seek the input and affirmation of others. Part of a no-person-left-behind generation, Generation Y is loyal, committed and wants to be included and involved.

    Attention-Craving: Generation Y craves attention in the forms of feedback and guidance. They appreciate being kept in the loop and seek frequent praise and reassurance. Generation Y may benefit greatly from mentors who can help guide and develop their young careers.

    Font: http://legalcareers.about.com/od/practicetips/a/Ge...
  • Consider the passage: “The fast-track has lost much of its appeal for Generation Y”. Where is the verb or the verbal locution and what is its verb tense?
  • 7 - Questão 5049.   Inglês - Nível Médio - Técnico de enfermagem - SERPRO - CESPE - 2008
  •      It now seems to me that what matters most in the majority
    of organizations is to have reasonably intelligent, hard-working
    managers who have a sense of pride and loyalty toward their
    organization; who can get to the root of a problem and are inclined
    toward action; who are decent human beings with a natural empathy
    and concern for people; who possess humor, humility, and common
    sense; and who are able to couple drive with stick-to-it-iveness* and
    patience in the accomplishment of a goal.
         It is the ability to make positive things happen that most
    distinguishes the successful manager from the mediocre or
    unsuccessful one. It is far better to have dependable managers who
    can make the right things happen in a timely fashion than to have
    brilliant, sophisticated, highly educated executives who are excellent
    at planning and analyzing, but who are not so good at implementing.
    The most cherished manager is the one who says “I can do it,” and
    then does.
         Many business schools continue to focus almost exclusively
    on the development of analytical skills. As a result, these schools are
    continuing to graduate large numbers of students who know a great
    deal about analyzing strategies, dissecting balance sheets, and using
    computers — but who still don’t know how to manage!
         As a practical matter, of course, schools can go only so far
    in teaching their students to manage. Only actual work experience
    will fully develop the kinds of managerial traits, skills, and virtues
    that I have discussed here.

    *the ability and determination to continue doing something despite difficulties.
    Wegman, Knezevic, Bernstein. A reading skills book, 3.d
    ed. Mac Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. (adapted).

    Based on the text above, judge the items below.
  • It’s much better to have trustworthy workers than very clever ones.
  • 8 - Questão 4361.   Inglês - Nível Superior - Engenheiro Agrônomo Júnior - Petrobrás - CESGRANRIO - 2012

  • The sentence, in Text I, in which the boldfaced expression introduces an idea of addition is
  • 9 - Questão 18991.   Inglês - Nível Médio - Aluno do Exército - EsFCEx - EB - 2011
  • Mark Zuckerberg’s 650 Million Friends (and counting)

        Back in June 2009, the globe’s potpourri of social-networking sites was extremely diverse: Google’s Orkut dominated India and Brazil; Central and South America preferred Hi5; Maktoob was king in the Arab world. The Vietnamese liked Zing, the Czechs loved Lidé, South Koreans surfed Cyworld. Two years after that, and Facebook has stolen users away from its rivals very fast. It’s completely knocked Hi5 off the map in former strongholds such as Peru, Mexico, and Thailand. After a tense back-and-forth with Orkut in India, Facebook has emerged victorious. And it’s becoming more popular in Armenia, Georgia, and the Netherlands, where local providers are making a desperate last stand.
       There are some glaring exceptions to Facebook’s colonization kick. Russians continue to use Vkontakte and Odnoklassniki, with Facebook a distant fourth in the rankings. China remains highly committed to domestic sites such as Qzone and Renren. But for the rest of us, we’re living in Zuckerberg’s world.

    (endereço eletrônico omitido propositadamente)
  • According to the text, Facebook’s boom on the Internet was in
  • 10 - Questão 21116.   Inglês - Nível Médio - Agente de Guarda Portuária - APSFS - IESES - 2014
  • O significado da seguinte frase “Charles used to work in a factory” é: