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Texto associado.
The effect of climate change on epidemic risk
The potential impacts of climate change have returned to headlines in recent weeks as scientists,
activists and policy makers try to understand the possible implications of a warming planet. While
rising temperatures and sea levels are important to be considered, changing climate patterns can
have vast implications for epidemic risk as well.
5 Changes in global climate patterns have been widely discussed; however, rising temperatures
also have implications for risk reduction and management, including impacts on infectious disease
epidemics. With 2016 the hottest year ever recorded and 2017 following suit, we anticipate a
continued growth in the distribution of disease agents, like mosquitoes and ticks. These can
spread illnesses such as zika, yellow fever and dengue to areas where they previously could not be
10 effectively transmitted.
As predicted by climate scientists, increases in extreme weather events may also lead to increases
in infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemics have previously been seen as a consequence of natural
disasters, which can lead to displaced and crowded populations, the ideal situation for infection
transmission. Severe rainfall or flooding is particularly effective at creating environments suitable
15 for the transmission and propagation of infectious diseases, such as measles or cholera.
Even without rising to the level of a natural catastrophe, significant variation in weather patterns
can result in changes in human and animal interactions, increasing the potential for pathogens to
move from animals into human populations. For example, unusually heavy rains may predispose
regions to ebola outbreaks by creating more favorable environments for bats hosting the virus.
20 Similarly, food scarcity brought about by drought, political instability or animal disease may lead to
more animal hunting, therefore raising the risk for ebola virus epidemic.
It is important to take note of the impact of climate change on epidemic risk, but it is equally
important to prepare for its impact on global health. The global health community has largely come
to realize that public health preparedness is crucial to responding efficiently to infectious disease
25 outbreaks. For this reason, our work is, then, centered around helping governments manage and
quantify infectious disease risk. Besides, regardless of weather patterns, insights into epidemics
and into mechanisms for ensuring adequate support are critical for managing this risk.
Since the public health community agrees that the question is not if another outbreak will happen,
but when, the steps we take in the coming years to prepare for and reduce the increasing frequency
of outbreaks will determine the broader implications these diseases have on our world.
contagionlive.com
The texts “Três teses sobre o avanço da febre amarela” and “The effect of climate change on epidemic risk”
mention possible reasons for disease outbreaks.
The reason which is presented in both texts is
Texto associado.
The effect of climate change on epidemic risk
The potential impacts of climate change have returned to headlines in recent weeks as scientists,
activists and policy makers try to understand the possible implications of a warming planet. While
rising temperatures and sea levels are important to be considered, changing climate patterns can
have vast implications for epidemic risk as well.
5 Changes in global climate patterns have been widely discussed; however, rising temperatures
also have implications for risk reduction and management, including impacts on infectious disease
epidemics. With 2016 the hottest year ever recorded and 2017 following suit, we anticipate a
continued growth in the distribution of disease agents, like mosquitoes and ticks. These can
spread illnesses such as zika, yellow fever and dengue to areas where they previously could not be
10 effectively transmitted.
As predicted by climate scientists, increases in extreme weather events may also lead to increases
in infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemics have previously been seen as a consequence of natural
disasters, which can lead to displaced and crowded populations, the ideal situation for infection
transmission. Severe rainfall or flooding is particularly effective at creating environments suitable
15 for the transmission and propagation of infectious diseases, such as measles or cholera.
Even without rising to the level of a natural catastrophe, significant variation in weather patterns
can result in changes in human and animal interactions, increasing the potential for pathogens to
move from animals into human populations. For example, unusually heavy rains may predispose
regions to ebola outbreaks by creating more favorable environments for bats hosting the virus.
20 Similarly, food scarcity brought about by drought, political instability or animal disease may lead to
more animal hunting, therefore raising the risk for ebola virus epidemic.
It is important to take note of the impact of climate change on epidemic risk, but it is equally
important to prepare for its impact on global health. The global health community has largely come
to realize that public health preparedness is crucial to responding efficiently to infectious disease
25 outbreaks. For this reason, our work is, then, centered around helping governments manage and
quantify infectious disease risk. Besides, regardless of weather patterns, insights into epidemics
and into mechanisms for ensuring adequate support are critical for managing this risk.
Since the public health community agrees that the question is not if another outbreak will happen,
but when, the steps we take in the coming years to prepare for and reduce the increasing frequency
of outbreaks will determine the broader implications these diseases have on our world.
contagionlive.com
the question is not if another outbreak will happen, but when, (l. 28-29)

The underlined words present the health community’s opinion concerning new outbreaks of epidemics.
According to their opinion, future outbreaks are seen as:
No tratamento dos sintomas da acidez estomacal, emprega-se o hidróxido de alumínio, que neutraliza o excesso
do ácido clorídrico produzido no estômago.
Na neutralização total, a quantidade de mols de ácido clorídrico que reage com um mol de hidróxido de alumínio
para formação do sal neutro corresponde a:
Texto associado.
The effect of climate change on epidemic risk
The potential impacts of climate change have returned to headlines in recent weeks as scientists,
activists and policy makers try to understand the possible implications of a warming planet. While
rising temperatures and sea levels are important to be considered, changing climate patterns can
have vast implications for epidemic risk as well.
5 Changes in global climate patterns have been widely discussed; however, rising temperatures
also have implications for risk reduction and management, including impacts on infectious disease
epidemics. With 2016 the hottest year ever recorded and 2017 following suit, we anticipate a
continued growth in the distribution of disease agents, like mosquitoes and ticks. These can
spread illnesses such as zika, yellow fever and dengue to areas where they previously could not be
10 effectively transmitted.
As predicted by climate scientists, increases in extreme weather events may also lead to increases
in infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemics have previously been seen as a consequence of natural
disasters, which can lead to displaced and crowded populations, the ideal situation for infection
transmission. Severe rainfall or flooding is particularly effective at creating environments suitable
15 for the transmission and propagation of infectious diseases, such as measles or cholera.
Even without rising to the level of a natural catastrophe, significant variation in weather patterns
can result in changes in human and animal interactions, increasing the potential for pathogens to
move from animals into human populations. For example, unusually heavy rains may predispose
regions to ebola outbreaks by creating more favorable environments for bats hosting the virus.
20 Similarly, food scarcity brought about by drought, political instability or animal disease may lead to
more animal hunting, therefore raising the risk for ebola virus epidemic.
It is important to take note of the impact of climate change on epidemic risk, but it is equally
important to prepare for its impact on global health. The global health community has largely come
to realize that public health preparedness is crucial to responding efficiently to infectious disease
25 outbreaks. For this reason, our work is, then, centered around helping governments manage and
quantify infectious disease risk. Besides, regardless of weather patterns, insights into epidemics
and into mechanisms for ensuring adequate support are critical for managing this risk.
Since the public health community agrees that the question is not if another outbreak will happen,
but when, the steps we take in the coming years to prepare for and reduce the increasing frequency
of outbreaks will determine the broader implications these diseases have on our world.
contagionlive.com
For example, unusually heavy rains may predispose regions to ebola outbreaks (?. 18-19)

The fragment that contains an expression with the same function as the one underlined above is:
Texto associado.
Três teses sobre o avanço da febre amarela
Como a febre amarela rompeu os limites da Floresta Amazônica e alcançou o Sudeste, atingindo
os grandes centros urbanos? A partir do ano passado, o número de casos da doença alcançou
níveis sem precedentes nos últimos cinquenta anos. Desde o início de 2017, foram confirmados
779 casos, 262 deles resultando em mortes. Trata-se do maior surto da forma silvestre da doença
5 já registrado no país. Outros 435 registros ainda estão sob investigação.
Como tudo começou? Os navios portugueses vindos da África nos séculos XVII e XVIII não
trouxeram ao Brasil somente escravos e mercadorias. Dois inimigos silenciosos vieram junto: o
vírus da febre amarela e o mosquito Aedes aegypti. A consequência foi uma série de surtos de
febre amarela urbana no Brasil, com milhares de mortos. Por volta de 1940, a febre amarela urbana
10 foi erradicada. Mas o vírus migrou, pelo trânsito de pessoas infectadas, para zonas de floresta na
região Amazônica. No início dos anos 2000, a febre amarela ressurgiu em áreas da Mata Atlântica.
Três teses tentam explicar o fenômeno.
Segundo o professor Aloísio Falqueto, da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, “uma pessoa
pegou o vírus na Amazônia e entrou na Mata Atlântica depois, possivelmente na altura de Montes
15 Claros, em Minas Gerais, onde surgiram casos de macacos e pessoas infectadas”. O vírus teria
se espalhado porque os primatas da mata eram vulneráveis: como o vírus desaparece da região
na década de 1940, não desenvolveram anticorpos. Logo os macacos passaram a ser mortos por
seres humanos que temem contrair a doença. O massacre desses bichos, porém, é um “tiro no
pé”, o que faz crescer a chance de contaminação de pessoas. Sem primatas para picar na copa das
20 árvores, os mosquitos procuram sangue humano.
De acordo com o pesquisador Ricardo Lourenço, do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, os mosquitos
transmissores da doença se deslocaram do Norte para o Sudeste, voando ao longo de rios e
corredores de mata. Estima-se que um mosquito seja capaz de voar 3 km por dia. Tanto o homem
quanto o macaco, quando picados, só carregam o vírus da febre amarela por cerca de três dias.
25 Depois disso, o organismo produz anticorpos. Em cerca de dez dias, primatas e humanos ou
morrem ou se curam, tornando-se imunes à doença.
Para o infectologista Eduardo Massad, professor da Universidade de São Paulo, o rompimento
da barragem da Samarco, em Mariana (MG), em 2015, teve papel relevante na disseminação
acelerada da doença no Sudeste. A destruição do habitat natural de diferentes espécies teria
30 reduzido significativamente os predadores naturais dos mosquitos. A tragédia ambiental ainda
teria afetado o sistema imunológico dos macacos, tornando-os mais suscetíveis ao vírus.
Por que é importante determinar a “viagem” do vírus? Basicamente, para orientar as campanhas
de vacinação. Em 2014, Eduardo Massad elaborou um plano de imunização depois que 11
pessoas morreram vítimas de febre amarela em Botucatu (SP): “Eu fiz cálculos matemáticos
35 para determinar qual seria a proporção da população nas áreas não vacinadas que deveria ser
imunizada, considerando os riscos de efeitos adversos da vacina. Infelizmente, a Secretaria de
Saúde não adotou essa estratégia. Os casos acontecem exatamente nas áreas onde eu havia
recomendado a vacinação. A Secretaria está correndo atrás do prejuízo”. Desde julho de 2017,
mais de 100 pessoas foram contaminadas em São Paulo e mais de 40 morreram.
40 O Ministério da Saúde afirmou em nota que, desde 2016, os estados e municípios vêm sendo
orientados para a necessidade de intensificar as medidas de prevenção. A orientação é que
pessoas em áreas de risco se vacinem.
NATHALIA PASSARINHO
Adaptado de bbc.com, 06/02/2018.
No processo de transmissão da febre amarela, sabe-se que apenas as fêmeas dos mosquitos se alimentam do
sangue de seres humanos e macacos.
Um aspecto favorecido por esse tipo de alimentação é:
A aplicação de campo elétrico entre dois eletrodos é um recurso eficaz para separação de compostos iônicos. Sob o efeito do campo elétrico, os íons são atraídos para os eletrodos de carga oposta. Considere o processo de dissolução de sulfato ferroso em água, no qual ocorre a dissociação desse sal. Após esse processo, ao se aplicar um campo elétrico, o seguinte íon salino irá migrar no sentido do polo positivo:
As células musculares presentes nas asas das aves migratórias possuem maior concentração de determinada organela, se comparadas às células musculares do restante do corpo. Esse fato favorece a utilização intensa de tais membros por esses animais. Essa organela é denominada:
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Our (Im)perfect bOdIes
Since I write a lot about positive body image, you’d think that I am well over the idea that weight
should be something that I allow to define my life. Yet, the vestiges of my past life as a woman
obsessed with weight still linger. A good example is vacation pictures. If I show you pictures of all
the places I have been in my Iife, I can give you minute details about the place itself, the food, the
5 sights and the weather. I can also tell you something else simply by looking at those pictures: the
exact number on the scale I was at that particular time in my life.
Sometimes my past catches up with me. I like to think of myself as a recovering weight-a-holic.
The fear of being overweight is a constant one of despair at not being personally successful in
controlling your own body. What good is being in control of finances, major companies and
10 businesses if you’re not in control of your body?! Silly idea, right? And yet that is exactly the
unconscious thought many intelligent women have.
Feeling satisfied with your appearance makes a tremendous amount of difference in how you
present yourself to the world. Some women live their entire lives on their perception of their
physical selves. But I’ve been there, done that. The hell with that idea! Personally, I became tired
15 of living my Iife this way.
My friend is an art historian who specializes in the Renaissance period. Talking with him recently gave
me a perspective on body image. As we walked through the permanent exhibit of Renaissance
Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, he pointed out the paintings done of women.
The women came in all sizes, all shapes. Some were curvier than others, but all were beautiful.
20 Some had what we refer to as love handles; some had soft, fuller stomachs that had never suffered
through crunches in a gym. Though I had seen them many times, it was actually refreshing to view
them in a new light.
We are led to believe our self-worth must be a reflection of our looks. So, in essence, if we don’t
believe we look good, we assume we have no worth! Yet, self-worth should have nothing to do
25 with looks and everything to do with an innate feeling that you really are worth it. You are worth
going after your dreams, you are worth being in a good relationship, you are worth living a life that
fulfills and nourishes you, and you are certainly worthy of being a successful woman.
There is a quote attributed to Michelangelo that I’ve always admired. When a friend complimented
him on the glorious Sistine Chapel, the great artist, referring to his art in the feminine form, was
said to have replied: “She is worthy of admiration simply because she exists; perfection and
imperfection together”.
BRISTEN HOUGHTON
Adaptado de twitter.com.
But I’ve been there, done that. (l. 14) 
The underlined expression refers to the author’s experiencing the situation described below:
Texto associado.
A lei de conservação do momento linear está associada às relações de simetrias espaciais.
Nesse contexto, considere uma colisão inelástica entre uma partícula de massa M e velocidade V e um corpo, inicialmente em repouso, de massa igual a 10M. Logo após a colisão, a velocidade do sistema composto pela partícula e pelo corpo equivale a: 
Marcelo Gleiser expõe em seu texto argumentos que se contrapõem à ideia de simetria como verdade absoluta na ciência. Um desses argumentos é identificado em: