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Questões de Vestibular - Inglês - Exercícios com Gabarito

Questões de Vestibular - Inglês - com Gabarito. Exercícios com Perguntas e Respostas, Resolvidas e Comentadas. Acesse Grátis!


Texto associado.
ADAPTACIÓN: LA CLAVE DE NUESTRA ESPECIE
Evolución quiere decir cambio a lo largo del tiempo. En esta definición se basó Charles Darwin para
escribir su famoso libro y desarrollar su idea sobre el origen de las especies. Una idea que parece que
ha tenido gran impacto en la forma de entender y estudiar el pasado de la vida en la Tierra. ¡Y vaya
que si tuvo impacto! La idea de evolución impregnó muchos campos del saber y permitió el estudio
del pasado del ser humano desde otra perspectiva.
Con el paso del tiempo se puede observar un cambio en los aspectos físicos del ser humano. Pero no
sólo se ha cambiado por fuera sino que el comportamiento del ser humano también ha protagonizado
cambios significativos a lo largo de la historia de su evolución.
Uno de los primeros pasos evolutivos hacia el humano moderno se le otorga al bipedismo. La
habilidad de caminar sobre las dos piernas empezó hace unos 4 millones de años. Desde entonces,
los cambios que se han producido en nuestra línea evolutiva han sido significativos. La introducción
de tecnología de piedra, el cambio en la dieta, la capacidad del lenguaje, etc. Y siempre con una
capacidad de adaptación sorprendente a nuevas formas de vida.
Si nos fijamos en la historia de la tecnología de piedra y en la de las telecomunicaciones centrándonos
en los teléfonos móviles, podemos observar un patrón común que se reproduce en ambas: la
tendencia a minimizar las dimensiones de las piezas y a hacerlas más finas. De verdaderos bloques
a objetos delicados y estilísticos.
La diferencia más notable entre una y otra tecnología es la rapidez del cambio entre diferentes
modelos. Mientras el desarrollo tecnológico de la piedra en los primeros seres humanos se prolongó
durante millones de años, en la era de las tecnologías tan solo se necesita poco más de una década
para evolucionar considerablemente.
Por tanto, pese a que lo más llamativo e impactante puede ser el cambio físico, el cambio de
comportamiento, el clima y evolución tecnológica quizás sean lo más determinante. Lo cual me
hace formularme la siguiente pregunta: ¿el cambio de comportamiento supuso el cambio físico
o fue al contrario? En cualquier caso, tanto un aspecto como el otro suponen evolución del ser
humano, y esto, hasta llegar hasta nuestros días, ha tenido muchos aspectos determinantes. Uno
de los más importantes sin lugar a dudas ha sido la inestabilidad climática que ha puesto a la
humanidad ante innumerables retos desde el inicio de la especie. Esto ha permitido desarrollar en
el género homo una capacidad abrumadora de adaptabilidad a los cambios del medio ambiente.
patrimoniointeligente.com
factors yet to be found. (l. 31) 
The expression yet to be found is used to represent an action which:
Texto associado.
........ September 11, 2001, at 8:46 A.M., a
hijacked airliner crashed into the north tower
of the World Trade Center in New York. At
9:03 A.M. a second plane crashed into the
south tower. The resulting infernos caused
the buildings to collapse, the south tower
after burning for an hour and two minutes, the
north tower twenty-three minutes after
that. The attacks were masterminded by
Osama bin Laden in an attempt to intimidate
the United States and unite Muslims for a
restoration of the caliphate.
9/11, as the happenings of that day are now
called, has set off debates on a vast array of
topics. But I would like to explore a lesserknown
debate triggered by it. Exactly how
many events took place in New York on that
morning ........ September?
It could be argued that the answer is one.
The attacks on the two buildings were part of
a single plan conceived by one man in service
of a single agenda. They unfolded ........ a few
minutes and yards of each other, targeting
the parts of a complex with a single name,
design, and owner. And they launched a
single chain of military and political events in
their aftermath.
Or it could be argued that the answer is two.
The towers were distinct collections of glass
and steel separated by an expanse of space,
and they were hit at different times and went
out of existence at different times. The
amateur video that showed the second plane
closing in on the south tower as the north
tower billowed with smoke makes the twoness
unmistakable: while one event was frozen in
the past, the other loomed in the future.
The gravity of 9/11 would seem to make this
discussion frivolous to the point of impudence,
a matter of mere "semantics," as we say, with
its implication of splitting hairs. But the
relation of language to our inner and outer
worlds is a matter of intellectual fascination
and real-world importance.
______ "importance" is often hard to
quantify, ........ this case I can put an exact
value on it: 3,5 billion dollars. That was the
sum in a legal dispute for the insurance
payout to Larry Silverstein, the leaseholder of
the World Trade Center site. Silverstein’s
insurance policies stipulated a maximum
reimbursement for each destructive "event."
If 9/11 comprised a single event, he stood to
receive 3,5 billion dollars; if two, he stood to
receive 7 billion. In the trials, the attorneys
disputed the applicable meaning of the term
event. The lawyers for the leaseholder defined
it in physical terms (two collapses); those for
the insurance companies defined it in mental
terms (one plot). There is nothing "mere"
about semantics!
Adapted from: PINKER, Steven. The Stuff of
Thought . New York: Penguin, 2007. p. 1-2.
Select the alternative that adequately fills in the gaps in lines 01, 18, 22 and 46 in this same order. 
Texto associado.
O texto a seguir é referência para a questão.

Ancient dreams of intelligent machines: 3,000 years of robots

    The French philosopher René Descartes was reputedly fond of automata: they inspired his view that living things were biological machines that function like clockwork. Less known is a strange story that began to circulate after the philosopher’s death in 1650. This centred on Descartes’s daughter Francine, who died of scarlet fever at the age of five.
    According to the tale, a distraught Descartes had a clockwork Francine made: a walking, talking simulacrum. When Queen Christina invited the philosopher to Sweden in 1649, he sailed with the automaton concealed in a casket. Suspicious sailors forced the trunk open; when the mechanical child sat up to greet them, the horrified crew threw it overboard.
    The story is probably apocryphal. But it sums up the hopes and fears that have been associated with human-like machines for nearly three millennia. Those who build such devices do so in the hope that they will overcome natural limits – in Descartes’s case, death itself. But this very unnaturalness terrifies and repulses others. In our era of advanced robotics and artificial intelligence (AI), those polarized responses persist, with pundits and the public applauding or warning against each advance. Digging into the deep history of intelligent machines, both real and imagined, we see how these attitudes evolved: from fantasies of trusty mechanical helpers to fears that runaway advances in technology might lead to creatures that supersede humanity itself.

(Disponível em: .)

According to the text, it is correct to say that René Descartes:

Texto associado.
O texto a seguir é referência para a questão.

Ancient dreams of intelligent machines: 3,000 years of robots

    The French philosopher René Descartes was reputedly fond of automata: they inspired his view that living things were biological machines that function like clockwork. Less known is a strange story that began to circulate after the philosopher’s death in 1650. This centred on Descartes’s daughter Francine, who died of scarlet fever at the age of five.
    According to the tale, a distraught Descartes had a clockwork Francine made: a walking, talking simulacrum. When Queen Christina invited the philosopher to Sweden in 1649, he sailed with the automaton concealed in a casket. Suspicious sailors forced the trunk open; when the mechanical child sat up to greet them, the horrified crew threw it overboard.
    The story is probably apocryphal. But it sums up the hopes and fears that have been associated with human-like machines for nearly three millennia. Those who build such devices do so in the hope that they will overcome natural limits – in Descartes’s case, death itself. But this very unnaturalness terrifies and repulses others. In our era of advanced robotics and artificial intelligence (AI), those polarized responses persist, with pundits and the public applauding or warning against each advance. Digging into the deep history of intelligent machines, both real and imagined, we see how these attitudes evolved: from fantasies of trusty mechanical helpers to fears that runaway advances in technology might lead to creatures that supersede humanity itself.

(Disponível em: .)

In the sentence “Those who build such devices do so in the hope that they will overcome natural limits …”, the underlined word refers to:
Texto associado.
1 Chaplin was famous in a way that no one had been
before; arguably, no one has been as famous since. At the peak
of his popularity, his screen persona, the Tramp, was the most
4 recognized image in the world. His name came first in
discussions of the new medium as popular entertainment, and
in defences of it as a distinct art form — a cultural position
7 occupied afterwards only by the Beatles, whose own
era-defining popularity never equalled Chaplin’s. He’s the
closest thing the 20th century produced to a universal cultural
10 touchstone.
Film histories will invariably assert that Chaplin’s
mass popularity was owed to the way in which the Tramp
13 represented a destitute everyman. His films turned hunger,
laziness, and the feeling of being unwanted into comedy. He
was an ego artist, a performer with an uncanny relationship to
16 the camera who spent the early part of his career refining his
screen persona and the latter part of it deconstructing it.
Many a film critic raises the issue of Chaplin’s actual
19 relationship to the cultural moment of the time — and the fact
that his popularity survived several periods of sweeping
cultural change. His post-silent films — which include his two
22 most enduringly popular features, Modern Times and The
Great Dictator — reflect his own attitudes more than the
feelings of American audiences at the time. His mature work is
25 deliberately artificial, set in a world pieced together from
chunks of European and American past, present, and, in the
case of Modern Times, future.
Ignaty Vishnevetsky A century later, why does Chaplin
still matters?
Internet: Ignaty Vishnevetsky A century later, why does Chaplin
still matters? Internet: www film avclub com (adapted)
According to the text above, judge the following statements.
Chaplin’s main goal as a film director was to eradicate starvation, laziness and lack of love by means of humour.
Texto associado.
Why Everyone Should Read Harry Potter
September 9, 2014
Harry Potter is the best selling book series of all time. But it’s had its reproaches. Various Christian groups claimed the books promoted paganism and witchcraft to children. Washington Post book critic Ron Charles called the fact that adults were also hooked on Potter a "bad case of cultural infantilism.” Charles and others also cited a certain artistic banality in massively commercial story-telling, while others criticized Hogwarts, the wizardry academy attended by Potter, for only rewarding innate talents.
The Anglo-American writer Christopher Hitchens, on the other hand, praised J. K. Rowling for freeing English children’s literature from dreams of riches and class and snobbery and giving us a world of youthful democracy and diversity. A growing body of evidence suggests that reading Rowling’s work, at least as a youth, might be a good thing.
(Adaptado de http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-everyone-shouldread-harry-potter/. Acessado em 02/09/2016.)
A leitura do excerto permite concluir adequadamente que:
I do not dispute the fact that the tourism industry brings in much needed revenue to the state (l. 25-26)
In the sentence above, the word that can replace dispute, without significant change of meaning, is:
Texto associado.
The complex linguistic universe of
Game of Thrones
Game of Thrones has garnered 38 Emmy
awards for its portrayal of a world of sex,
violence and politics so real that some viewers
could imagine moving there. Part of that detail
has been the creation of the richest linguistic
universe since J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle Earth.
In the field of language-creation for fictional
worlds, there is Tolkien, and there is everybody
else. But David Peterson, the language-smith
of Game of Thrones , comes a close second for
the amount of thought put into its two
languages, Dothraki and Valyrian. The interest
in these tongues is such that a textbook for
learning Dothraki has been published, while
Duolingo, a popular online language-learning
platform, now offers a course in High Valyrian.
Inspired by fictional languages such as those
in the Star Wars films and with a master’s
degree in linguistics, Peterson made Dothraki
and Valyrian as rich and realistic as possible.
Creating words is the easy part; anyone can
string together nonsense syllables. But
Peterson, like Tolkien, took the trouble to give
his words etymologies and cousins, so that
the word for “feud” is related to the words
“blood” and “fight”. To make the languages
pronounceable but clearly foreign, he put
non-English sounds in high-frequency words
(like khaleesi , or queen), put the stress in
typically non-English places, and had words
begin with combinations of sounds that are
impossible in English, like hr .
Armed with a knowledge of common linguistic
sound changes, he gives his languages the
kinds of irregularities and disorder that arise in
the real world: High Valyrian’s obar
(“curve”) becomes Astapori Valyrian’s uvor .
Words’ meanings—as in real life—drift, too,
giving the system more realistic messiness.
Languages also play a prominent role in the
storyline. Dothraki is the guttural language of
a horse-borne warrior nation, but high-born
Daenerys Targaryen does not look down on it;
methodically learning it is key to her rise.
Tyrion Lannister is left to administer the city
of Mereen despite his ropy command of
Valyrian, leading to some comic moments.
And a prophecy of a future hero acquires new
meaning when an interpreter explains that the
word in question is ambiguous in Valyrian—it
could be “prince” or “princess”.
It might seem odd that a highly sexist society
like the one of Game of Thrones would have
languages where sex roles were not clearly
marked, but languages are not always perfect
vehicles for a culture. Random change can
leave them with too many words for one
concept, and not enough for another. In this
way, the flawed nature of language reflects
the foibles of flawed humans and the
imperfect worlds they strive to create.
Adaptado de:
<https://www.economist.com/news/books-andarts/
21725752-dothraki-and-valyrian-are-mostconvincing-
fictional-tongues-elvish>.
Acesso em: 21 nov. 2017.
Assinale com V (verdadeiro) ou F (falso) as afirmações abaixo, acerca do texto. 
( ) O autor considera Peterson tão talentoso quanto Tolkien em termos de criação de línguas ficcionais. 
( ) As línguas criadas soam estrangeiras por contrariar padrões fonológicos da língua inglesa. 
( ) A parte mais fácil da criação das línguas, segundo o autor, é dar conta da etimologia das palavras. 
( ) O autor considera improvável que, em uma sociedade sexista como a de Game of Thrones, as línguas não delimitem claramente os papéis de gênero. 
A sequência correta de preenchimento dos parênteses, de cima para baixo, é 
Texto associado.
........ September 11, 2001, at 8:46 A.M., a
hijacked airliner crashed into the north tower
of the World Trade Center in New York. At
9:03 A.M. a second plane crashed into the
south tower. The resulting infernos caused
the buildings to collapse, the south tower
after burning for an hour and two minutes, the
north tower twenty-three minutes after
that. The attacks were masterminded by
Osama bin Laden in an attempt to intimidate
the United States and unite Muslims for a
restoration of the caliphate.
9/11, as the happenings of that day are now
called, has set off debates on a vast array of
topics. But I would like to explore a lesserknown
debate triggered by it. Exactly how
many events took place in New York on that
morning ........ September?
It could be argued that the answer is one.
The attacks on the two buildings were part of
a single plan conceived by one man in service
of a single agenda. They unfolded ........ a few
minutes and yards of each other, targeting
the parts of a complex with a single name,
design, and owner. And they launched a
single chain of military and political events in
their aftermath.
Or it could be argued that the answer is two.
The towers were distinct collections of glass
and steel separated by an expanse of space,
and they were hit at different times and went
out of existence at different times. The
amateur video that showed the second plane
closing in on the south tower as the north
tower billowed with smoke makes the twoness
unmistakable: while one event was frozen in
the past, the other loomed in the future.
The gravity of 9/11 would seem to make this
discussion frivolous to the point of impudence,
a matter of mere "semantics," as we say, with
its implication of splitting hairs. But the
relation of language to our inner and outer
worlds is a matter of intellectual fascination
and real-world importance.
______ "importance" is often hard to
quantify, ........ this case I can put an exact
value on it: 3,5 billion dollars. That was the
sum in a legal dispute for the insurance
payout to Larry Silverstein, the leaseholder of
the World Trade Center site. Silverstein’s
insurance policies stipulated a maximum
reimbursement for each destructive "event."
If 9/11 comprised a single event, he stood to
receive 3,5 billion dollars; if two, he stood to
receive 7 billion. In the trials, the attorneys
disputed the applicable meaning of the term
event. The lawyers for the leaseholder defined
it in physical terms (two collapses); those for
the insurance companies defined it in mental
terms (one plot). There is nothing "mere"
about semantics!
Adapted from: PINKER, Steven. The Stuff of
Thought . New York: Penguin, 2007. p. 1-2.
Consider the following propositions for rephrasing the fragment of sentence the south tower after burning for an hour and two minutes (l. 06-07). 
I - the south tower after having been burning for an hour and two minutes 
II - the south tower after it was burning for an hour and two minutes 
III- the south tower after it had been burning for an hour and two minutes 
If applied to the text, which ones would be correct and keep the literal meaning?
Texto associado.
1 Chaplin was famous in a way that no one had been
before; arguably, no one has been as famous since. At the peak
of his popularity, his screen persona, the Tramp, was the most
4 recognized image in the world. His name came first in
discussions of the new medium as popular entertainment, and
in defences of it as a distinct art form — a cultural position
7 occupied afterwards only by the Beatles, whose own
era-defining popularity never equalled Chaplin’s. He’s the
closest thing the 20th century produced to a universal cultural
10 touchstone.
Film histories will invariably assert that Chaplin’s
mass popularity was owed to the way in which the Tramp
13 represented a destitute everyman. His films turned hunger,
laziness, and the feeling of being unwanted into comedy. He
was an ego artist, a performer with an uncanny relationship to
16 the camera who spent the early part of his career refining his
screen persona and the latter part of it deconstructing it.
Many a film critic raises the issue of Chaplin’s actual
19 relationship to the cultural moment of the time — and the fact
that his popularity survived several periods of sweeping
cultural change. His post-silent films — which include his two
22 most enduringly popular features, Modern Times and The
Great Dictator — reflect his own attitudes more than the
feelings of American audiences at the time. His mature work is
25 deliberately artificial, set in a world pieced together from
chunks of European and American past, present, and, in the
case of Modern Times, future.
Ignaty Vishnevetsky A century later, why does Chaplin
still matters?
Internet: Ignaty Vishnevetsky A century later, why does Chaplin
still matters? Internet: www film avclub com (adapted)
According to the text above, judge the following statements.
“At the peak of” (R. 2 and 3) can be correctly rewritten as At the height of.