Questões de Inglês - Exercícios para Concursos Militares com Gabarito

Questões de Inglês com Gabarito. Exercícios para Concursos Militares com Atividades Resolvidas e Comentadas. Teste seus conhecimentos com Perguntas e Respostas Grátis!

1 Questão 156992 | Inglês, Oficial da Marinha, ESCOLA NAVAL, EN, 2011

According to the text, in what way has the modern building design worried architects, builders and engineers?

2 Questão 18459 | Inglês, Sargento da Aeronáutica, EEAR, FAB, Ensino Superior, 2014

Dont drink and ride

Alcohol can increase your risk of being hurt in a car accident, even if you aren"t behind the wheel. A new University of Michigan study reports that men who have been drinking are 50 percent more likely to experience a serious injury during a car accident than sober passengers.

According to the text, all the alternatives are correct, except:

3 Questão 52584 | Inglês, Oficial da Marinha, Escola Naval, MB, Ensino Médio, 2018

Doctors Know Best
By Ted Spiker

Along with all the disease stomping, heart reviving, baby delivering, and overall people healing they do, doctors have another full-time job: keeping themselves healthy. Scratch that - keeping themselves healthiest. So instead of peeking into their medical practices, we looked at what they actually practice - in their own lives. Use personal strategies and insider tips from the best medical pros to supercharge your health this year.

( I)-______ "As soon as I feel an illness coming on, I go to sleep for at least nine hours," says Hilda Hutcherson, MD, clinical professor of ob-gyn at Columbia University Medicai Center. "I also lie on the floor with my legs elevated and propped against the wall and breathe deeply for five minutes." It helps lower stress, which weakens the immune system.
(II )-______ Instead of having a garden-variety green salad, Margaret McKenzie, MD, assistant professor of surgery at the Cleveland Clinic, tosses napa cabbage, radicchio, edamame, and carrots with ginger-soy dressing. "It gives me a lot of vitamins, antioxidants, and protein and makes me feel full," she says.
(III)-______ [...] Gary Small, MD, professor of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles, and author of The Alzheimer"s Prevention Program, plays Scrabble and Words With Friends on his smartphone most days. These word games are perfect brain boosters, because they build not only verbal and math skills but also spatial abilities as you position letters to create words. "Combining several mental tasks strengthens multiple neural circuits," Dr. Small says. "It"s like cross-training for your brain."
(IV) - _____ Make your bedroom spalike: Dim the lights at least an hour before you go to bed; ban cell phones, laptops, and the TV; ask your partner for a foot rub. "I do deep breathing exercises," Dr. Hutcherson says. "Sometimes I play relaxing music softly."
(V) - _____ The most important meal is breakfast, says David Katz, MD, director and founder of Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center in Derby, Connecticut. He often has two breakfasts, divvying up his morning meal so that he eats half before his workout and half after. "It helps with portion control, and it establishes a daily eating pattern," Dr. Katz says. Plan your breakfast at night to start the next day on a healthy note.

(Abridged from https ://www.fitnessmagazine.com/health/doctors-tips-tostay-healthy/)

In the sentence "It helps lower stress, which weakens the immune system.” (2nd paragraph), the underlined words mean, respectively,______and______.

4 Questão 42698 | Inglês, Soldado do Corpo de Bombeiro, Bombeiro Militar AC, FUNCAB, Ensino Médio, 2015

“The home is the inviolable refuge of the individual, and no one may enter therein without the consent of the dweller, except in the event of flagrante delicto or disaster, or to give help, or, during the day, by court order."
As per the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, very few bodies are allowed to force entry into a private property. From the five alternatives given below, choose the one which indicate the body and the situation in which forced entry is permitted:""

5 Questão 52761 | Inglês, Oficial da Marinha, Colégio Naval, MB, Ensino Fundamental, 2018

TEXT I

Social media ’destroying how society works"

A former Facebook executive has said social media is doing great harm to society around the world. The executive is a man called Chamath Palihapitiya. He ___________ Facebook in 2007 a n d ___________a vice president. He was responsible for increasing the number of users Facebook had. Mr Palihapitiya said he feels very guilty about getting more people to use social networks. He said the networks are destroying society because they are changing people"s behavior. Twenty years ago, people talked to each other face to face. Today, people message each other and do not talk. People also really care about what other people think of them. They post photos and wait to see how many people like the photo. They get very sad if people do not like the photo.
Mr. Palihapitiya said people should take a long break from social media so they can experience real life. He wants people to value each other instead of valuing online "hearts, likes, and thumbs-up". Palihapitiya also points out how fake news is affecting how we see the world, it is becoming easier for large websites to spread lies. It is also becoming easier to hurt other people online. Anyone can hide behind a fake user name and post lies about other people. Palihapitiya said this was a global problem. He is worried about social media so much that he has banned his children from using it. However, he did state that Facebook was a good company. He said: "Of course, it"s not all bad. Facebook overwhelmingly does good in the world."

Mark the option in which there is NO Present Continuous Tense.

6 Questão 693689 | Inglês, Sargento da Aeronáutica Aeronavegantes e Não Aeronavegantes, EEAR, Aeronáutica, Ensino Médio, 2019

Texto associado.
TV addiction
1       The amount of time people spend watching television is
     astonishing. On average, individuals in the industrialized
     world devote three hours a day to the pursuit, fully half of
     their leisure time, and more than on any single activity save
5   work and sleep. Someone who lives to 75 would spend nine
     years in front of the tube. To some commentators, this
     devotion means simply that people enjoy TV and make a
     conscious decision to watch it. But if that is the whole story,
     why do so many people experience misgivings about how
10 much they view?
                                                                             www.sciam.com/article.cfm
Write (T) True or (F) False, according to the text. Then choose the correct alternative.
( ) The quality of TV programs in different countries determines
 the amount of time people devote to TV watching.
( ) Some commentators believe people watch so much TV simply because they enjoy it.
( ) People spend too much time watching TV.

7 Questão 691128 | Inglês, Cadete do Exército 2° Dia, EsPCEx, Exército Brasileiro, Ensino Médio, 2019

Texto associado.

                                  Lego wants to replace plastic blocks with sustainable materials

      The Lego Group wants to replace the plastic in their products with a “sustainable material” by 2030, the company announced.
      The world’s largest toy company will invest $1 billion in their new LEGO Sustainable Materials Centre in Denmark, which _______(1) devoted to finding and implementing new sustainable alternatives for their current building materials. Lego plans on hiring 100 specialists for the center. There is no official definition of a sustainable material.
      Legos _______(2) made with a strong plastic known as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene since 1963. The company uses more than 6,000 tons of plastic annually to manufacture its products, according to NBC News. Changing the raw material could have a large effect on Lego’s carbon footprint, especially considering that only 10% of the carbon emissions from Lego products come from its factories. The other 90% is produced from the extraction and refinement of raw materials, as well as distribution from factories to toy stores.
      The company _______(3) already taken steps to lower its carbon footprint, including a reduction of packaging size and an investment in an offshore wind farm.
                                  Adapted from http://time.com/3931946/lego-sustainable-materials/

Choose the alternative containing the correct verb forms to complete gaps (1), (2) and (3) in paragraphs 2, 3 and 5 respectively.

8 Questão 19107 | Inglês, Oficial do Exército, IME, EB, Ensino Médio, 2014

Texto associado.
Text 1
                        Luis Suárez joins anti-racism calls after Dani Alves banana incident

            The Barcelona defender Dani Alves has sparked a social media campaign against racism in football as support flooded in from fellow professionals for his decision to eat a banana thrown at him by an opposition fan.
            Luis Suárez, Neymar, Hulk, Mario Balotelli and Sergio Agüero were among those who posted pictures of themselves taking bites out of bananas in tribute to Alves actions in his side s La Liga match at Villarreal on Sunday.
            The Fifa president Joseph Blatter has branded the abuse directed at Alves an "outrage" and promised zero tolerance towards discrimination at the World Cup, while Villarreal took swift action by identifying the culprit and handing him a lifetime stadium ban.
            Alves response to the banana being thrown on to the pitch in front of him as he prepared to take a corner was to nonchalantly pick it up, peel it and take a bite before continuing with the game. The 30-year- old, who has been the victim of racist abuse before during his time in La Liga, said: "You need to take these situations with a dose of humour."
       Players across Europe paid homage on Twitter and Instagram, including Suárez, who served an eight-match ban for racially abusing Patrice Evra.
            Alves s Barça and Brazil team-mate Neymar led the way after posting a picture on Instagram of himself holding a banana, while writing "We are all monkeys". Balotelli, Milan"s former Manchester City striker, posted a picture of himself in a similar pose.
            Suárez posted a picture on Twitter of himself and Liverpool team-mate Philippe Coutinho taking bites out of bananas, along with the words: "#SayNoToRacism #WeAreAllMonkeys."
            (...)
             Barça gave their player their "complete support and solidarity" and thanked Villarreal for their "immediate condemnation" of the incident. Villarreal later revealed they had, with the help of fans, found out who the culprit was, had withdrawn his season ticket and banned him from the El Madrigal stadium for life.

Disponível em:
In text 2, “What’s in a name?”, we can infer that the narrator is

9 Questão 11149 | Inglês, Aluno Oficial, Polícia Militar SP, VUNESP, Ensino Médio, 2014

Texto associado.
Leia o texto para responder às questões:

The Right to a “Custody Hearing” under International Law

by Maria Laura Canineu
February 3, 2014

        A person who is arrested has a right to be brought promptly before a judge. This is a longstanding and fundamental principle of international law, crucial for ensuring that the person’s arrest, treatment, and any ongoing detention are lawful.
        Yet, until now, Brazil has not respected this right. Detainees often go months before seeing a judge. For instance, in São Paulo state, which houses 37 percent of Brazil’s total prison population, most detainees are not brought before a judge for at least three months. The risk of ill-treatment is often highest during the initial stages of detention, when police are questioning a suspect. The delay makes detainees more vulnerable to torture and other serious forms of mistreatment by abusive police officers.
        In 2012, the UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment reported that it had received “repeated and consistent accounts of torture and ill-treatment” in São Paulo and other Brazilian states, “committed by, in particular, the military and civil police.” The torture had allegedly occurred in police custody or at the moment of arrest, on the street, inside private homes, or in hidden outdoor areas, and was described as “gratuitous violence, as a form of punishment, to extract confessions, and as a means of extortion.”
        In addition to violating the rights of detainees, these abusive practices make it more difficult for the police to establish the kind of public trust that is often crucial for effective crime control. These practices undermine legitimate efforts to promote public security and curb violent crime, and thus have a negative impact on Brazilian society as a whole.
        The right to be brought before a judge without unnecessary delay is enshrined in treaties long ago ratified by Brazil, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the American Convention on Human Rights. The United Nations Human Rights Committee, which is responsible for interpreting the ICCPR, has determined that the delay between the arrest of an accused and the time before he is brought before a judicial authority “should not exceed a few days,” even during states of emergency.
        Other countries in Latin America have incorporated this right into their domestic law. For instance, in Argentina, the federal Criminal Procedure Code requires that in cases of arrest without a judicial order, the detainee must be brought to a competent judicial authority within six hours.
        In contrast, Brazil’s criminal procedure code requires that when an adult is arrested in flagrante and held in police custody, only the police files of the case need to be presented to the judge within 24 hours, not the actual detainee. Judges evaluate the legality of the arrest and make the decision about whether to order continued detention or other precautionary measures based solely on the written documents provided by the police.
        The code establishes a maximum of 60 days for the first judicial hearing with the detainee, but does not explicitly say when this period begins. In practice, this often means that police in Brazil can keep people detained, with formal judicial authorization, for several months, without giving the detainee a chance to actually see a judge.
        According to the code, the only circumstance in which police need to bring a person before the judge immediately applies to cases of crimes not subject to bail in which arresting officer was not able to exhibit the arrest order to the person arrested at the time of arrest. Otherwise, the detainee may also not see a judge for several months.

(www.hrw.org. Editado e adaptado)
No trecho do sexto parágrafo – …the detainee must be brought to a competent judicial authority within six hours. –, o termo must pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por

10 Questão 15786 | Inglês, Aluno Oficial, APMBB, VUNESP, Ensino Médio, 2012

Texto associado.
Police and Human Rights – Manual for Police Training

How can respecting human rights help the police?

Respect for human rights by law enforcement agencies actually enhances the effectiveness of those agencies. Where human rights are systematically respected, police officers have developed professionalism in their approaches to solving and preventing crime and maintaining public order. In this sense, respect for human rights by police is, in addition to being a moral, legal and ethical imperative, also a practical requirement for law enforcement. When the police are seen to respect, uphold and defend human rights:

• Public confidence is built and community cooperation fostered.
• Legal prosecutions are successful in court. • Police are seen as part of the community, performing a valuable social function.
• The fair administration of justice is served, and, consequently, confidence in the system.
• An example is set for respect for the law by others in the society.
• Police are able to be closer to the community, and, therefore, in a position to prevent and solve crimes through proactive policing.
• Support is elicited from the media, from the international community, and from higher authorities.
• A contribution is made to the peaceful resolution of conflicts and complaints. 

An effective police service is one that serves as the first line of defense in the protection of human rights. Its members carry out their work in a way, which does not rely upon fear and raw power but, on the contrary, is based on regard for the law, honor, and professionalism.

What role does training play in protecting human rights?

The effective training of police in human rights is an essential element in the global efforts to promote and protect human rights in every country. In order to protect human rights, the police must first know and understand them. Furthermore, police officers must be familiar with the various international guidelines and bodies of principles – such as the Code of Conduct for law enforcement officials and the principles on the use of force and firearms – and be able to use them as tools in their everyday work. They must understand the fact that international human rights standards concerning their work were developed to provide invaluable guidance for the performance of their crucial functions in a democratic society. However, police officers in the line of duty should know not only what the rules are, but also how to do their job effectively within the confines of those rules.

Doesn’t concern for human rights hinder effective police work? 

Most people have heard the argument that respect for human rights is somehow opposed to effective law enforcement. And effective law enforcement means to capture the criminal. And to secure his conviction, it is necessary to “bend the rules” a little. A tendency to use overwhelming force in controlling demonstrations, physical pressure to extract information from detainees, or excessive force to secure an arrest can be observed now and then. In this way of thinking, law enforcement is a war against crime, and human rights are merely obstacles thrown in the path of the police by lawyers and NGOs. In fact, violations of human rights ––78–––– police only make the already challenging task of law enforcement ––– 79––– . When the law enforcer ––– 80––– the lawbreaker, the result is an assault on human dignity, on the law itself and on all institutions of public authority.

(G. Kalajdziev, et al. www.humanrights.dk. Adaptado.)
Whenever enforcing the law, police should